Volvo B10M Operator’s Manual, Maintenance Section

Maintenance

I did not have access to an English language version of the Operator's Manual. This is not a reproduction of the original English language Volvo B10M Mk I Operator's Manual. It is a synthesis of the following Volvo publications:

  1. B10M Mark I Operator's Manual, French edition.
  2. B10M Mark II Operator's Manual, TP 9029/1 English 4500. 11.85.
  3. Volvo B58 Operator's Manual, TP 2003/1 English 2500. 2.80
  4. Volvo Service Bulletin 3-37-18, Wiring diagram for B10M from Chassis No. 503, May 1980

It does not include any official Volgren coachwork information.

Back to the Volvo B10M Operator's Manual index page


Contents

MAINTENANCE Page
General42
System-Service43
Maintenance scheme44
Lubrication during running-in48
Daily inspection50
Wintertime51
Lubrication, oils, oil changes
 engine52
 manual transmission54
 gear lever carrier56
 automatic transmission56
 final drive62
 power-assisted steering63
 all-round lubrication64
Cooling system64
Fuel system68
Electrical system70
Brake system74
Fire warning system75
Tyres and wheels76

42 Maintenance, general

MAINTENANCE

A warranty booklet is supplied with the bus and contains coupons covering warranty service. If possible allow the dealer who supplied the bus to carry out this servicing. If this is not possible, you can go to another authorized Volvo workshop. If our warranty is to apply, the above-mentioned warranty services must be carried out at about the mileage stipulated and the bus must be maintained in accordance with the instructions given in this manual.

To ensure that your bus gets perfect maintenance also in the future, you should reach some kind of agreement with your Volvo workshop about continued service.

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43 System-Service

SYSTEM-SERVICE

If the bus is to retain its original properties throughout its entire lifetime, regular maintenance is required, in other words - SYSTEM-SERVICE.

You are urged to get in touch with your local Volvo workshop and with their help draw up a servicing program in accordance with the Volvo SYSTEM-SERVICE for buses. The Volvo workshop is the most suitable workshop to look after your bus because it has:

The Volvo SYSTEM-SERVICE for buses consists of 4 different service programs: B1 at 5,000 km, B2 at 10,000 km, B3 at 40,000 km and B4 at 80,000 km.

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44 Maintenance scheme

MAINTENANCE SCHEME

Measures To be carried out
after every (km)
See
Page
Oils, oil checks, oil changes, oil filters
1Engine oil, check Daily52
2 Engine oil, change1 10,00053
3 Engine oil filter, change1 10,00053
4Manual transmission, check oil 5,00054
5 Manual transmission, change oil7 40,0003 55
6Gear lever carrier, check oil 5,00055
7 Gear lever carrier, change oil5 80,00055
8Voith 851 automatic transmission, check oil 5,00056
9 Voith 851 automatic transmission, change oil and clean filter3 30,00057
10ZF automatic transmission, check oil 5,00058
11 ZF automatic transmission, change oil and filter2 30,00059
12Allison automatic transmission, check oil 5,00060
13 Allison automatic transmission, change oil and clean filter4 40,00061
14Final drive check oil 5,00062
15 Final drive, change oil4 40,00062
16Power-assisted steering, check oil 5,00063
17Power-assisted steering, change filter6 80,00063
18Angled gear, steering gear, check oil 5,00063
19Clutch fluid reservoir, check level 5,00064
20Chassis, all-round lubrication 5,00064
Further measures which can be carried out by driver or owner
21Coolant, check levelDaily 64
22Coolant, change Every autumn65
23Coolant filter, change 20,00067
24Battery, check acid level 5,00071
25Brake system, check pressure regulator and warning lamps Daily74
26Brake system, check for leakage 10,00074
27Brake system, check filter in air dryer Once a year74
28Tyre pressure, check Each week76
1) The oil in the engine should be changed at least twice a year. With a new or newly overhauled engine, the first oil change should take place with the 2,500km warranty service, the second after 5,000km and the third in connection with the 10,000km warranty service.
With a new or newly overhauled engine, change the oil filter at the 2,500km and 10,000km warranty services.
2) However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also in connection with the 2,500km warranty service.
3) However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also in connection with the 2,500km and 10,000km warranty services.
4) However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also in connection with the 10,000km warranty service.
5) However, carried out at least once a year.
6) However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also in connection with the 10,000km warranty service, on which occasion the oil is also changed.
7) However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also after 10,000km.

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45 System-Service report

VOLVO BUS SERVICE

Date
 
Mileage
 
RO No.
 
Inspected by (signature)
 
Name
Address
City
Chassis
Type No.
Gearbox
Rear Axle
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Licence No.
Telephone No.
Delivery Date
Engine
Type/No.
Customer No.
 
[]Basic Inspection 15,000km []Basic Inspection 340,000km Judgement: V = OK 2 = Immediate action
[]Basic Inspection 210,000km []Basic Inspection 480,000km   1 = Action recommended - = Does not apply
B1B2B3B4 Inspection itemsJudgement-↓Remark
     TEST DRIVING   
     A. Check before testing   
XXXX 1. Indicator lights, warning lights, buzzers   
 XXX 2. Starting switch, starter contact, starter motor, start inhibitor relay.   
 XXX 3. Engine start response.   
  XX 4. Compressed-air system's pressure.   
  XX 5. Pressure governor's cut-out and cut-in pressure.   
 XXX 6. Function of blocking valve and parking brake.   
XXXX 7. Brake system for leakage with brake pedal depressed and parking brake released.   
     B. Check bus while driving concerning function, noise and vibrations   
 XXX 8. Engine, clutch, gearbox, final drive, brake, steering and suspension.   
 XXX 9. Speedometer and odometer, tachograph, kilometre counter. Fuel and temperature gauges. Tachometer.   
 XXX 10. Interior and body   
 XXX 11. Observe smoke density.   
     C. Check after driving   
 XXX 12. Engine function at low and high idle.   
XXXX 13. Note any faults to be remedied.   
     LIGHTING, DIRECTION INDICATORS, WIPERS   
XXXX 14. Interior lighting and "STOP" lights. Check.   
XXXX 15. Exterior lighting, lamp glass, reflectors.   
  XX 16. Headlamps. Check alignment and lighting power.   
XXXX 17. Direction indicators, horn. Check.   
XXXX 18. Wipers and washers for windscreen and headlamps. Check function.   
     HEATING, VENTILATION   
 XXX 19. Heating and de-froster unit. Check.   
  XX 20. Filter for fresh-air intake. Check.   
 XXX 21. Extra heater and air conditioning. Check   
 XXX 22. Engine compartment blower. Check   
     DOORS, WINDOWS, LIDS   
XXXX 23. Doors. Check.   
 XXX 24. Windows and windscreen. Check.   
 XXX 25. Lids for luggage compartment, engine, batteries, etc. Check.   
XXXX 26. Floor and floor covers. Check.   
 XXX 27. Roof and roof hatches. Check.   
XXXX 28. Sun visors and rearview mirrors. Check.   
     SEATS AND SHELVES   
 XXX 29. Driver's seat. Check.   
XXXX 30. Passenger's seats. Check.   
XXXX 31. Luggage shelves and hold-on bars. Check.   
     EQUIPMENT   
 XXX 32. First-aid kit, fire extinguisher, axe. hammer, warning triangle. Check.   
 XXX 33. Tools, jack. Check.   
     PEDAL CARRIER AND CLUTCH OPERATION   
XXXX 34. Pedal carrier. Check,   
XXXX 35. Clutch operation. Check.   
     LEAKAGE CHECK   
XXXX 36. Engine, heating and cooling system, gearbox, final drive, wheel hubs, steering gear, pipes and hoses. Check for leakage.   
     ENGINE AND FUEL SYSTEM   
 XXX 37. Engine mounting. Check.   
  XX 38. Valves. Adjust valve clearance.  NOTE! Different intervals
  XX 39. Pump coupling. Check.   
  XX 40. Anti-tamper seals. Check.   
  XX 41. Fuel system. Check feed pressure.   
   X 42. Fuel tanks. Check mounting. Drain condensation water.   
     INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS   
  XX 43. Air cleaner. Measure pressure drop. If necessary replace insert.   
  XX 44. Pipes and hoses for intake air. Check   
  XX 45. Turbo-compressor. Check.   
Original

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46 System-Service, work report

[]Basic Inspection 15,000km []Basic Inspection 340,000km Judgement: V = OK 2 = Immediate action
[]Basic Inspection 210,000km []Basic Inspection 480,000km   1 = Action recommended - = Does not apply
B1B2B3B4 Inspection itemsJudgement-↓Remark
  XX 46. Manifolds. Check for exhaust gas leakage   
 XXX 47. Exhaust pipe and silencer, Check mounting and condition   
     COOLING SYSTEM   
 XXX 48. Radiator, radiator blind, fan, fan shroud and fan drive. Check mounting and condition.   
  XX 49. Coolant. Check anti-freeze.   
  XX 50. Cooling system and heating system. Pressure-test and check condition of hoses.   
     ELECTRICAL SYSTEM   
XXXX 51. Drive belts and tensioner pulley. Check condition and belt tension.   
   X 52. Starter motor and alternator Check mounting. Lubricate alternator.   
  XX 53. Batteries. Check voltage and specific gravity.   
XXXX 54. Batteries. battery cable shoes. Check mounting. Top-up with distilled water.   
   X 55. Battery box. Check mounting. Clean and paint.   
     POWER TRAIN   
  XX 56. Gearbox and final drive. Visually inspect mounting. Clean ventilation on rear axle.   
 XXX 57. Control cylinders. Wilson transmission, Check for leakage and draining.   
  XX 58. Propeller shafts and support bearing. Check mounting aid condition.   
     BRAKE SYSTEM   
 XXX 59. Brake linings. Measure brake lining wear through inspection collar.   
 XXX 60. Brake cylinders. Check. Note stroke length. Check linkage system.   
   X 61. Automatic slack adjuster. Check cone clutch.   
  XX 62. Electro-mechanical brake. Check mounting and el. connections.   
     COMPRESSED-AIR SYSTEM   
XXXX 63. Compressed-air reservoirs and filters. Check. Drain condensation water.   
 XXX 64. Compressed-air pipes and hoses. Check.   
 XXX 65. Compressor and pressure governor. Check. Replace filter.   
  XX 66. Anti-freeze device, Check function.   
     FRONT END, STEERING GEAR, WHEELS, HUBS   
XXXX 67. Steering gear, pitman arm, steering arms, steering rods, tie-rod, steering column.
Check mounting and for wear.
  
XXXX 68. Wheels. Check for loose wheel nuts and cracks. Check wheel nuts manually.   
XXXX 69. Tyres. Check tread depth, wear and for any damage. Also air pressure.   
  XX 70. King-pin bolts. Apply footbrake and measure wear.   
  XX 71. Front wheel hubs. Measure bearing clearance. Rotate wheels with spinner   
  XX 72. Rear wheel hubs. Check bearing clearance.   
  XX 73. Front wheel alignment. Check toe-in.   
     SUSPENSION SYSTEM AND FRAME   
 XXX 74. Axle frames, transverse stays and stabilisers. Check mounting.   
 XXX 75. Air bellows and level valves. Check mounting and condition.   
  XX 76. Air bellows. Measure height of bellows.   
   X 77. Level valves. Clean air filter.   
XXXX 78. Springs and U-bolts. Check for broken spring leaves and mounting.   
  XX 79. Spring bolts and spring attachments. Check for wear and mounting.   
 XXX 80. Shock absorbers. Check mounting and condition.   
  XX 81. Frame, crossmembers and body attachments. Check.   
     BODY   
 XXX 82. Visually inspect bus body for damage.   
     LUBRICATION   
XXXX 83. All-round lubricate bus according to lubrication chart.   
     OIL CHANGE, CLEANING OR REPLACING FILTERS   
 XXX 84a. Engine. Change oil and filters.   
  XX 84b. Gearbox. Change oil. clean or replace filter.  NOTE! Different intervals
  XX 84c. Hydraulic clutch. Change oil.   
   X 84d. Final drive. Change oil.   
   X 84e. Power-assisted steering. Change filter.   
   X 84f. Fan drive   
     OIL LEVEL CHECKS
Check oil level and top-up if necessary.
  
X    85a. Engine   
XXXX 85b. Gearbox   
XX   85c. Hydraulic clutch   
XX   85d. Final drive   
XXXX 85e. Power-assisted steering   
XXX  85f. Fan drive   
     FLUID LEVEL CHECKS
Check fluid level and if necessary top-up
  
XX   86a. Cooling system   
XX   86b. Anti-freeze reservoir, brakes   
XXXX 86c. Washer reservoir   
XXXX 86d. Clutch fluid reservoir.   
Original

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47 Engine compartment

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine compartment with THD100

Engine Compartment

  1. Air filter
  2. Power steering pump
  3. Pressure equalizer
  4. Turbo-compressor
  5. Fuel injection pump
  6. Water pump
  7. Lubricating oil filter
  8. Fuel filter
  9. Starter motor

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48 Running-in

LUBRICATING INSTRUCTIONS DURING RUNNING-IN

During the running-in period, the moving parts of the bus must be trimmed in order to get smooth and strong sliding surfaces. For this reason oil changing should be carried out more frequently during the running-in period than is normal later on.

Engine

First oil change:2,500 Km
Second oil change:5,000 km
Third oil change:10,000 km

Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.

Oil filter

First change:2,500 Km
Second change:5,000 km

Thereafter every 10,000 km.

Manual transmission

First oil change after 10,000 km. Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.

Automatic Transmissions

Voith and ZF automatic transmissions

First oil change and changing of filter in connection with the 2,500 km warranty service. For Voith also during running-in at 10,000 km.

Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.

Allison automatic transmission

First oil change and replacement of filter after 10,000 km. Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.

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49 Running-in

Final Drive

First oil change after 10,000 km, at which the final drive is flushed clean. Second oil change after 40,000 km. Thereafter every 40,000 km (or at least once a year).

Power-assisted steering

First oil and filter change after 10,000 km. Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.

With the all-round lubrication at 5,000 km, the oil in the engine, transmission, final drive and power-assisted steering and also check the fluid levels in the batteries, cooling system and washer reservoirs should also be checked

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50 Daily inspection

THE FOLLOWING SHOULD BE CHECKED DAILY:

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant reserve tank level check Volvo B10M Mk I Engine oil reserve tank level check Volvo B10M Mk I Air brake pressure guage
1. Coolant. Before starting the engine check the level of the coolant is between the maximum and minimum marks on the expansion tank. If necessary top-up using the same mixture in the cooling system. (Use Volvo's glycol). Never fill with cold coolant when the engine is hot! This could crack the engine block, etc., because of the large difference in temperature.
2. Engine oil. Check after starting the engine that the oil level is between the maximum and minimum marks on the oil tank level guage.
Under no circumstances may the oil level be below the minimum level.
When topping-up use the same quality oil already in the engine.
3. Check warning lights and confirm operation of the dashboard lights using the "Check" button.
4. Brake system pressure regulator and warning lamp
 A. Start the engine. The indicator light should turn on and go out again when pressure has reached 460-520 kPa (4.6-5.2 bars).
 B. Check with the air pressure gauge that the pressure regulator disengages when pressure reaches 730-800kPa (7.3-8.0 bars).
 C. Depress and release the brake pedal and check that the compressor re-engages when pressure has dropped to 630-700 kPA (6.3-7.0 bars).
5.Horn, direction indicators, windscreen wipers and washers, rearview mirrors, brake lights and all the other lighting.
Check that there are no fuel leaks.

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51 Procedure in cold weather

WINTERTIME

PROCEDURE IN COLD WEATHER

To avoid any unnecessary trouble which may arise during the wintertime, you should have your bus checked in good time.

Oils

At low temperatures, it is important that you use oils with the correct viscosity in the engine, transmission and final drive, see the recommendations on Pages 52 to 63 or in the Lubrication Chart at the end of this book.

Cooling system

If freezing weather is anticipated, make sure that the cooling system is protected by using at least 40% glycol in the coolant. Keep the winter mixture for the entire year and top up when necessary with water + glycol, in order to maintain good protection against rusting. Use Volvo's glycol.

Fuel system

Use the winter fuels supplied by the oil companies. Always try to keep the tank as well-filled as possible. Do not put methylated spirits in the fuel tank. You should try to fill the tank immediately after completing driving for the day.

Electrical system

During the wintertime the batteries are exposed to considerably more stresses than during the summertime, since lighting, etc, is used more often. Also the capacity of the batteries drop as the temperature drops. Check the batteries regularly - poorly charged batteries can be damaged by frost.

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52 Engine

ENGINE OIL

Always make sure that the engine gets oil of a well-known make. It must be able to meet the following quality requirements:

Oil qualityViscosity1
Below -10°C2-10°C to +20°CAbove +20°C
For Service CD
(MIL-L-2104 C)
SAE 15 W/40
SAE 10 W
or SAE 10 W/20
or SAE 10 W/30
SAE 20 W/20SAE 30
or SAE 20 W 30
 
1)The temperatures refer to stable ambient temperatures.
2)Or when cold-start difficulties can be expected.

Note : At temperatures below -20°C, SAE 10 W or SAE 10 W/20 should be used instead of SAE 15 W-40.

Note : SAE 15 W-40 to be used only to -20°C.

1 Checking the oil level

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine oil reserve tank level check lamp Volvo B10M Mk I Engine oil reserve tank level check

Check the engine oil level daily in connection with starting the engine.

Monitoring can be done with the level indicator on the tank.

This check is preferably done when the engine is idling or immediately after engine shutdown.

The level should be between the maximum and minimum marks on the oil tank level guage.

Under no circumstances may the oil level be below the minimum level.

When topping-up use the same quality oil already in the engine.

The warning lamp for low oil level keeps a continuous check during driving.

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53 Engine

2 Changing the engine oil

Volvo B10M Mk I THD100 Engine oil drain plug on dry sump

Dry sump

Volvo B10M Mk I THD100 Engine oil drain plug at oil pocket on inspection panel

Inspection cover

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine oil drain plug on reserve tank

Oil reservoir

The engine oil should be changed every 10,000 km, or at least every 6 months.

Also during the running-in:

1st time at2,500 Km
2nd time after5,000 km
3rd time at the warranty service after10,000 km)

The three plugs on the engine must first be removed in order to drain the oil. One is at the lower edge of the dry sump, the other at the oil pocket on the inspection panel and the third underneath the oil tank.

Oil capacity incl. oil filter: 30 litres.

3 Changing the oil filters

Volvo B10M Mk I THD100 Engine oil filters

The engine has two lubricating oil filters. These can be replaced every 10,000 km when changing the oil. (During the running-in, the filters must also be changed at the 2,500 km and 10,000 km warranty services.)

The filters must not be cleaned. The only servicing requirement which can occur is replacement at specified intervals.

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54 Manual Transmission

ZF S6-80 And ZF S6-80/GV 80 MANUAL TRANSMISSION

Oil according to API-GL-4 must always be used for lubricating the gearbox.

Select the viscosity according to the following table:

Viscosity1
Below -10°C
(14°F)
-10°C to +30°C
(14°F to +86°F)
Above +30°C
(86°F)
SAE 80 W/903 SAE 902
or
SAE 80 W/902
SAE 140
or
SAE 85 W/140
1) The temperatures refer to stable ambient temperatures.
2) With very hard driving or lengthy driving at high altitudes (2,000 metres above sea level). SAE 140 or SAE 85 W/140 is recommended instead of SAE 90 or SAE 80 W/90.
3) SAE 75 W is recommended at very low temperatures.

4 Checking the gearbox oil level

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF S6-80 manual transmission level plug

Level plug

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF S6-80 manual transmission dipstick

Angle dipstick

Check the oil level every 5,000 km. To check unscrew the level plug and wipe the dipstick with a clean piece of cloth. Insert dipstick as shown in figure. If it remains dry, the oil must be topped up to the angle dipstick. (No guage on new model).

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55 Gear lever carrier

5 Changing the gearbox oil

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF S6-80 / GV80 manual transmission drain plugs
1Draining
2Filler/level plug basic gearbox
3Filler/level plug splitter gearbox

Change the oil every 40,000 km or at least once a year. During the running-in, however, change the oil after the first 10,000 km.

Drain the oil immediately after running since it flows easily then.

Fill with new oil until it has reached correct level, first 2 litres in the splitter gearbox and the remainder in the main gearbox. Then start the engine and run it for about 1 minute. Check the oil level and top-up to the correct level.

Oil change quantity: ZF S6-80 13 litres
ZF S6-80/GV80 15 litres

6-7 Checking and changing gear lever carrier oil

Volvo B10M Mk I gear lever carrier oil plug
1Filler hole
2Lubricator
3Level hole
4Drain hole

Check the oil level connection with the all-round lubrication, that is, every 5,000 km (3,000 miles). If necessary add new oil until it runs out through the level hole. Change the oil every 80,000 km or once a year. Use gear oil SAE 90.

Oil capacity: Approx. 0.5 litres.

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56 Automatic transmission

VOITH 851 AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

The proper fuctioning of the automatic transmission depends on the cleanliness of the oil used as well as the type and level of the oil. Failures are often caused by oil pollution. Before checking or filling, always clean around the guage and oil filler neck.

Oil type : ATF, type Dexron II

Checking transmission oil

Check the oil level every 5,000 km through the guage at the rear of the gearbox on the right-hand side. Drive the bus until the transmission has reached normal operating temperature, that is at least 60°C. Apply the parking brake and let the engine idle. Move the selector to the N-position.

Wipe the dipstick dry and then measure the oil level in the usual way with the engine running. The level should be between the two marks on the oil dipstick.

If necessary top-up through the oil filler hole placed on the transmission right-hand side.

If the oil level falls below the lower mark on the dipstick, no assurance can be givem as to the proper functioning of the gearbox.

Oil capacity : approx. 25 litres on new filling
approx. 23 litres when draining oil from the crankcase and the converter

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57 Automatic transmission

9 Transmission oil change and filter cleaning

Volvo B10M Mk I Voith 851 Automatic transmission oil drain plug

Change the oil and clean the filter every 30,000 km. During the running-in period also at 2,5000 km and 10,000 km.

The oil in the transmission is drained by removing the plug underneath the sump.

The suction strainer in the oil sump should be cleaned every 60,000 km or once per year.

Before removing the oil filter, you must remove the drain plug and drain the oil.

Clean the oil filter insert and inside the filter housing in cleaning fluid. Fill the filter housing with oil and re-install the oil filter.

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58 Automatic transmission

ZF 4 HP 500/5 HP 500 AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

The function of the transmission is dependent on having clean oil of the correct type at the correct level. Very often a malfunctioning transmission is because of dirt in the oil. Always clean, therefore, the dipstick and the oil filler stud when checking or topping-up.

Oil type:Engine oil SAE 10 W.
Oil quality:API Service CC, CD, SC, SD or SE (MIL-L-2104 C).

10 Checking the oil level

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF Automatic transmission dipstick

Check the oil level every 5,000 km with the dipstick. This is placed in the oil filler tube.

The dipstick has different marks for a warm and a cold transmission.

With a cold transmission, the oil level check can only be provisional. The transmission should have reached its normal operating temperature in order to get an accurate level. If the bus has not been driven for a long time, i.e. more than 12 hours, the oil level, before warming-up, is higher than normal. This is because oil from the torque converter and oil cooler has flooded into the gearbox and increased level.

Run the bus until the transmission has reached its normal operating temperature, that is, approx. 85° C. Stop the bus, apply the parking brake and allow the engine to idle, selector lever in N.

Wipe the dipstick dry and measure the level in the usual way with the engine running. It should be between the two upper marks on the dipstick. If it is below the lower mark for a warm transmission, top-up. This is done through the oil filler tube.

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59 Automatic transmission

11 Changing the oil

Change the oil and filter every 30,000 km. During the running-in, however, after the 2,500 km.

Drain the oil by removing the drain plug on the sump and immediately after driving since it can still flow easily.

The filter is placed under the cover on the front of the oil sump on the right-hand side. Change both the filter and the O-ring in the cover. The tightening torque for the cover screws is: 22.5 Nm (2.3 m. kg).

When filling, fill slowly with approx. 12 litres. If it is not possible to fill with all the oil at once, start and run the engine at idle and top-up. Then check the oil level in the usual way.

Oil change quantity: approx. 15 litres (approx. 30 litres for filling a dry gearbox including oil cooler).

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60 Automatic transmission

ALLISON MT 643/644 /654 CR AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

The function of the transmission is dependent on having clean oil of the correct type at the correct level. Very often a malfunctioning transmission is because of dirt in the oil. Always clean, therefore, the oil filler tube before removing the dipstick to check the oil level. Make sure no dirt gets onto the dipstick.

Oil type: ATF-oil, type Dexron II.

12 Checking the oil level

The oil level should be checked at each all-round lubrication, that is, every 5,000 km (or more frequently if operating conditions motivate this).

The level is checked with the dipstick in the filler cover.

Check as follows:

1 Drive the bus until the transmission has reached its normal operating temperature.
The oil must be warm to make a proper check of the level.
2 Stop the bus on flat ground, apply the parking brake and allow the engine to idle.
3 Slowly move the selector lever through all the gear-changing positions. Stop for a second or two at each position.
4 Move the selector lever to N (engine idling).
5 Wipe the dipstick with a clean rag which does not leave fluff, etc., on the dipstick and check the level in the usual way.
The level should be between the marks on the dipstick. If it is below the lower mark, top-up with ATE-oil type Dexron II.
If the level is above the upper mark, drain some of the oil to get below this level.

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61 Automatic transmission

13 Changing the oil and oil filter

Change the oil and oil filter every 40,000 km or at least once a year.

During the running-in, however, change the oil and oil filter at the 10,000 km warranty service.

(For a newly overhauled transmission, the oil and oil filter must be changed for the first time after 1,000 km.)

Oil change quantity:

approx. 13 litres. for MT 643/644
approx. 14 litres for MT 654 CR

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62 Final drive

FINAL DRIVE OIL

Final drive oil according to API-GL-5 or 6 (ML-L-2105 B or C) must be used for the final drive.

Viscosity
Below -10°C Between -10°C and +30°C Above +30°C
SAE 80 W/90
or
SAE 80 W/140
SAE 90
or
SAE 80 W/90*
SAE 140
or
SAE 85 W/140

*) With very arduous driving or lengthy driving at altitudes of more than 2,000 metres above sea level, SAE 140 or SAE 85 W/140 is recommended instead of SAE 90 or SAE 80 W/90.

14 Checking the oil level

Volvo B10M Mk I Final drive oil drain and filler plug
1Level/filler plug
2Drain plug

The oil level should be checked at each all-round lubrication, that is, every 5,000 km. To check. unscrew the combined level/filler plug. The oil should be level with the hole.

If topping-up is required, use the same type of oil already in the final drive.

NOTE! Also check the rear axle ventilation. It is important that it is not blocked otherwise this will cause overpressure in the rear axle and result in oil leakage.

15 Changing the final drive oil

Change the final drive oil every 40,000 km.

Change it, however, at least once a year even if you drive less than 40,000 km in that year.

During the running-in you' must also change as follows:

1st time = at 10,000 km warranty service, when the final drive is flushed through with the same type of oil to be subsequently used in the final drive.
2nd time = 40,000 km.

Drain the oil immediately after driving since it flows easily then.

Drain by removing the bottom plug in the rear axle casing.

Oil capacity:
EV 80B, approx. 9.5 litres
EV 85 B, approx. 12 litres

(concerning the designation "EV 80 B and EV 85B", refer to the Data Plates section).

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63 Power-assisted steering, angle gear

Power Steering

Oil

Use ATF-oil type Dexron II for the power-assisted steering system.

Volvo B10M Mk I Power assisted steering oil reservoir and dipstick 16 Checking the oil level

The oil reservoir is situated at the very front on the right side of the bus. Check the oil level with the dipstick which is fixed in the reservoir cover.

Check the oil level every 5.000 km. The engine must be switched off. The level should be at the MAX. mark. If it is lower than this, top-up with the engine switched off to eliminate risk of air being sucked into the engine.

17 Changing the oil filter

Oil and filter must be changed at the 10,000 km warranty service. The oil should then only be changed in connection with work on the power-assisted steering system.

The filter must be replaced every 80,000 km or at least once a year.

Clean the outside of the holder. Remove the old filter insert. Hold a finger under the centre hole to prevent any dirt, etc., from the inside of the filter from getting into the holder. Oil the filter sealing ring and re-fit the new insert.

Volvo B10M Mk I steering angle gear oil plug 18 Checking the angle gear, steering gear oil level (only LHD)

The angle gear is situated at the bottom of the steering column. Check the oil level at each all-round lubrication, that is, every 5,000 km. It should be level with the plug.

Oil: ATF-oil type Dexron II.

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64 All-round lubrication, cooling system

CLUTCH FLUID

Volvo B10M Mk I Clutch fluid reservoir 19 Checking the clutch fluid level

Check the level every 5,000 km. The level should be half way up the reservoir.

Use brake fluid which meets the requirements according to the standard SAE J 1703 (DOT 3 or 4).

ALL-ROUND LUBRICATION

CHASSIS

20 Chassis all-round lubrication

The lubrication points in the chassis can be seen from the lubricating chart at the end of this manual.

YOU SHOULD ALSO KNOW ABOUT THE FOLLOWING:

Cooling system
Fuel system
Electrical system
Tyre pressure

COOLING SYSTEM

21 Checking the coolant level

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant low level warning lamp Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant reserve tank level check

The coolant level should be checked daily. The level of the coolant must be between the maximum and minimum marks on the expansion tank.

If necessary, top-up using the same mixture in the cooling system.

Never fill with cold coolant when the engine is hot as the large difference in temperature could crack the engine block, etc.

While driving the level can be checked by a warning lamp in the dashboard.

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65 Cooling system

ANTI-FREEZE

22 Changing the coolant

The bus is delivered from the factory with the cooling system filled with coolant and anti-freeze (glycol) which provides protection against frost down to -35°C. This mixture can be used for the first year. The coolant should then be changed every autumn. Never use a weaker glycol mixture than 40% glycol.

The glycol protects the cooling system in the winter against freezing and in the summer from rusting.

The following table shows the glycol requirement for protection against frost at different temperatures.

Use Volvo's glycol.

GLYCOL

Glycol % 40% 45% 55% 60%
Protects against frost down to -25°C -30°C -40°C -56°C*

*) -56°C is the maximum amount of freezing protection which can be provided. To increase the percentage of glycol above this will only impair the freezing protection.

WARNING! Glycol is poisonous.

RUSTPROOF

Rustproofing additive for the coolant

During the warm part of the year, a rustproofing additive can be added to the coolant on certain markets where the anti-freeze is not necessary. Use Volvo's rustproofing additive for diesel engines. This is contained in containers of 118 grammes which is enough for about 10 litres of coolant.

P/N 1128383-5.

Mix the additive in several litres of water and fill the cooling system with the mixture. Run the engine warm as soon as possible after filling the system so that the rustproofing will have maximum possible effect.

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66 Cooling system

Draining the cooling system

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant compressor drain plug

Compressor (plug)

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant radiatorr drain plug

Radiator

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant drain plug between engine and water pump

Hose between engine and water pump (plug)

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant engine drain plug

Engine (plug)

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant engine drain plug

Engine (plug)

All drain points must be opened in order to empty the cooling system entirely. Moreover the expansion tank cap should be removed. There are five drain points for draining the cooling system. One is situated on the compressor, one on the radiator, one on the hose connection between the water pump and engine block and two underneath the engine block. Also drain the heating system.

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67 Cooling system

Filling an empty cooling system with coolant

The filling is done with the engine at reat. The drain valve is located on the inlet water to the gearbox (Voith 851 automatic transmission). Verify the coolant level after after warming the engine and top-up if necessary.

23 Changing the coolant filter (extra equipment)

The coolant filter must be replaced in connection with a change of coolant. Over and above this it is recommended that the filter be changed every 20,000 km.

With separate filter replacement, that is, when the coolant is not changed at the same time, close the cock on the filter container before unscrewing and removing the filter.

Smear the rubber seal on the new filter cartridge with a light layer of oil.

Screw on the filter until the seal makes contact with the contact surface and then tighten up the cartridge 1/2 turn by hand. Open the cocks again.

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68 Fuel system

FUEL SYSTEM

REMEMBER that you must always observe the greatest cleanliness when working with the diesel engine's fuel system. Always use those diesel brands supplied by well-known oil companies. Never use brands of a poor quality.

The special winter fuels supplied by the large oil companies should be used during the wintertime. Because of the lower temperatures that prevail then, the winter fuels are not so sluggish and this reduces the risk of wax deposits in the fuel system. Please observe that we do not recommend that you mix methylated spirit with the diesel oil. Small amounts as little as 1/2% can damage the fuel system. Make sure instead that you have tank well filled and so avoid condensation in the tank.

When filling the tank at a petrol station always make sure that the tank cap and round the filler hole are clean. If you fill from your own tank or container, you would be advised to make sure that it is clean and that you filter the fuel.

Concerning fuel specifications, see Page 82.

IMPORTANT

The anti-tamper seals on the injection pump may only be broken by authorized mechanics. With unauthorized breakage of the seals, the warranty becomes null and void. The injection pump must be anti-tamper sealed in accordance with current regulations.

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69 Fuel system

Bleeding the fuel system

Volvo B10M Mk I Diesel fuel filter bleed valve

Fuel filter bleed valve

Volvo B10M Mk I Diesel fuel feed pump

Feed pump

Volvo B10M Mk I Diesel fuel injection pump bleed screw

Bleed screw, injection pump

Sooner or later during the lifetime of the bus the fuel system will have to be bled, since this is done when:

Bleeding is as follows:

1 Open the bleed valve on the fuel filters.
2 Screw up the hand primer and pump fuel into the fuel system with it. When fuel free from air bubbles starts flowing out, close the bleed screw for the fuel filters whilst the fuel is flowing out.
3 Open the bleed screw on the injection pump. It is provided with a plastic hose to prevent the fuel flowing out from getting into the engine and causing an unpleasant odour in the bus. Continue priming until fuel free from air bubbles flows out. Then close the bleed screw whilst the fuel is still flowing out.
Continue priming with a further 10-20 strokes with the bleed screw closed.
Turn down the handle on the feed pump.
Check for fuel leakage after bleeding the fuel system.

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70 Electrical system

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

IMPORTANT

The bus electrical system is run on 24 volts. Current is supplied by two 12 V batteries and an alternator. The system is a single-pole system and the chassis and the engine block are used as earth conductors.

Note! The following must be observed when doing any work on the electrical system:

1 Make sure that the batteries are connected with the correct polarity
A positive cable to a negative pole or a negative cable to a positive pole would ruin the alternator rectifier very rapidly.
2 The charging circuit must not be broken while the engine is running
The charging circuit goes from B+ on the alternator to the battery positive pole, and from its negative pole to one or earth points on the body. If the circuit or the earth cables are broken or disconnected while the alternator is charging, this will damage the alternator rectifier.
3 Rapid charging and starting aid
Remember the polarity - positive to positive and negative to negative! Positive to negative would damage the rectifiers very rapidly.
We recommend that one of the battery cables is disconnected before rapid charging. When using, on the other hand, jumper cables as an aid in starting, all cables must be connected up.
Never use a rapid-action charger as an aid in starting. This would damage the alternator rectifier.
4 The following must be observed prior to doing any electrical work on the vehicle:
Disconnect:
 
A The battery earth cable
B The cable connections to the control unit for the Voith 851 and ZF 4 HP 500 automatic transmissions.
C The connectors to the selector lever control.

Also make certain that the ends of the cables are disconnected and not in contact with the chassis.

Always connect the welding machine as near as possible to the areas to be welded.

After connecting cables, and after washing the vehicle in an automatic position, apply a little anti-corrosion treatment on the eclectrical connections.

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71 Electrical system

Volvo B10M Mk I Acessing the batteries 24 Checking the electrolyte level in the batteries

Check the electrolyte level each week.

The battery box is situated on the left-hand side of the bus. The electrolyte level should be approx. 10 mm above the cell plates. If the level is too low, top-up with distilled water. Never add too much, since the acid can spill over and cause damage to the paintwork, etc. Check the attachment for the cables when checking the elctrolyte level.

Changing bulbs

NOTE! Never hold the bulb glass in your hand when changing a bulb. Any grease, oil, etc., on the glass can cause the glass to emit fumes when warm and this can damage the reflector. This applies particularly to the headlight bulbs.

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72 Electrical system

FUSES AND RELAYS

The fuses and relays are situated in the electrical distribution centre. When the bus is delivered, this centre is placed on the frame and connected to the instrument panel by means of a cable harness.

Its final position will depend on the coach body work, etc.

The fuses are of the automatic type. In other words, they cutout automatically when overloaded. After fault tracing and any repairs, re-set the fuse by pushing in the button. Should the same fuse "blow" repeatedly, obviously something is wrong with the electrical system which should be checked by the proper workshop.

Volvo B10M Mk I Electrical distribution centre fuse, fuse ratings, plus relay layout
Fuses
1 Ignition switch 16A
2 Spare 16A (maximum)
3 Brake lights, step relay 8A
4 Parking lights 8A
5 Parking lights 8A
6 Dipped beam 8A
7 Dipped beam 8A
8 Full beam 8A
9 Full beam 8A
10 Airdryer, tachograph, instrumentation, warning/indication lamps, cold start time relay, exhaust brake 8A
11 Horn, splitter, selector lever, relay starting position, engine stop, differential lock, ZF retarder 8A
12 Coolant level relay 8A
13 Spare 8A
14 Spare 8A
Relays
A Time relay, preheating
B Step relay, main beam and dipped beam
C Starting position
D Parking lights
E Horn
F Start inhibitor
G Dipped beam
H Coolant level
I Battery charging warning light
J Main beam

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73 Electrical system

Connection box, main electrical circuit breaker

Volvo B10M Mk I Main electrical circuit breaker in connection box
1 Latching relay main circuit breaker
2 Cut-in relay
3 Bosch split-duty main switch
4 Starter heater relay
5 Fuse block
  a) Fuse for Tachograph and ignition switch (5A)
  b) Fuse for relays 4, 5 and 6 (16A)
6 Cold start relay
7 Starter motor relay
8 Engine compartment fan relay (if fitted)
9 Alternator protection diode
10 Coach builder's fuse
11 Starting heater fuse
Volvo B10M Mk I Manual reset of main circuit breaker electromagnet switch

As an emergency measure you can manually turn off the main circuit breaker. Simply remove the rubber cap on the upper surface of the connection box in order to reposition the electromagnet switch (see decal on breakout box).

Connection box, main manual circuit breaker

Volvo B10M Mk I Main manual circuit breaker
A Off position
B On position

Fuses 5, 9, 10, 11 and relays 4, 6, 7, 8 (see previous illustration) occupy the same positions in the main electrical circuit breaker connection box.

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74 Brake system

BRAKE SYSTEM

25 Checking the brake system pressure regulator and failure warning light

Volvo B10M Mk I Brake air pressure guage

Check the function of the pressure regulator and the brake failure warning light when starting the engine. Any faults should be adjusted as soon as possible by an authorized Volvo workshop.

  1. Start the engine. The warning light should go on and then go out when pressure has reached 460-520 kPa (4.6-5.2 bars).
  2. Check with the air pressure gauge that the pressure regulator disengages when pressure rises to 730-800 kPa (7.3-8.0 bars).
  3. "Pump" with the brake pedal several times and check that the compressor re-engages when pressure drops to 630-700 kPa (6.3-7.0 bars).

26 Checking the compressed-air system for leakage

If the pressure drop during the test described below should exceed 50 kPa (0.5 bars), this points to abnormal leakage and should be put right by an authorized Volvo workshop.

  1. Run the engine until the air pressure gauge shows a pressure of approx. 700 kPa (7 bars). Stop the engine and read-off the gauge during 2.5 minutes.
  2. Run the engine until pressure is approx. 700 kPa (7 bars). Depress the brake pedal as far as possible and stop the engine. Keep the pedal depressed for 2.5 minutes and read-off the gauge.

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75 Fire warning system

27 Air dryer for brake system

The brake system is provided with an air dryer. This separates moisture from the compressed air and thus prevents valves in the brake system from freezing up.

The moisture is separated in a ceramic filter which must be changed once a year. The separated water drains automatically.

The brake system compressed-air reservoirs (2 double reservoirs) are provided with manual bleed cocks. Look for condensation water in the compressed-air reservoirs to check to see whether the air dryer is functioning or not.

The ceramic filter is adversely affected by alcohol mixtures in compressed air. When charging the buses compressed air system from an external source (can involve the use of alcohol mixtures) the external source must be connected after the air dryer.

FIRE WARNING SYSTEM

Daily check

Before each operation, only the green light marked "Drift" is illuminated.

Periodic inspection

The thermocable should be checked once a month. The cable must be intact, clean and well fixed in place. Because of age, it is recommended to replace it entirely once every two years. Verify the "Halon" bottle is fixed in place, connections have not detached due to vibration, and the guage on the bottle is in the green zone of the scale. (relates to vehicles with fire extinguishing systems).

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76 Tyres and wheels

TYRE PRESSURE

28 Checking tyre pressure

Check the tyre pressure every week.

NOTE! the air pressures in the diagrams refer to cold tyres. After you have driven several miles the temperature in the tyres will rise and also the air pressure which rises to 80-190 kPa (0.8-1.9 bar) higher than is the case with cold tyres.

With warm tyres, you should alter the air pressure only if the tyres have to be inflated.

The curves are general. The recommendations of the tyre manufacturers should primarily be followed. According to these recommendations, it may be necessary to increase the air pressure by 50-100 kPa (0.5-1.0 bar) for certain types of driving.

SINGLE WHEELS TWIN WHEELS
Axle weight, kg Axle weight, kg
Volvo B10M Mk I Nomograph for calculating tyre pressure for single wheel axle weight Volvo B10M Mk I Nomograph for calculating tyre pressure for double wheel axle weight
Inflation pressure Inflation pressure

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77 Tyres and wheels

Some tips an how to avoid unnecessary tyre wear

Maintain the proper tyre pressure.

Remember that tyre wear increases with speed. Do not drive with imbalanced wheels.

Check the wheel toe-in regularly.

Do not change round the wheels unnecessarily.

Twin-mounted wheels

With twin-mounted wheels, only tyres of the same type and diameter (max. 6mm difference) should be fitted together.

Changing wheels

When about to change a wheel, first slacken the wheel nuts a few turns and then jack up the bus so that the wheel is off the ground. Then remove the wheel nuts completely and lift off the wheel.

Before installing a wheel, clean and lubricate the threads on the wheel studs. Clean the contact surfaces on the wheel and brake drum. When fitting a wheel, tighten up the wheel nuts diametrically and a little at a time until all are well-tightened. Spoke wheels should be tightened up in sequence.

Tightening torque: 550-700 Nm (55-70 m.kg).

Check-tighten the wheel nuts after the vehicle has been driven a short distance.

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