I did not have access to an English language version of the Operator's Manual. This is not a reproduction of the original English language Volvo B10M Mk I Operator's Manual. It is a synthesis of the following Volvo publications:
It does not include any official Volgren coachwork information.
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|Lubrication during running-in||48|
|Lubrication, oils, oil changes|
|gear lever carrier||56|
|Fire warning system||75|
|Tyres and wheels||76|
A warranty booklet is supplied with the bus and contains coupons covering warranty service. If possible allow the dealer who supplied the bus to carry out this servicing. If this is not possible, you can go to another authorized Volvo workshop. If our warranty is to apply, the above-mentioned warranty services must be carried out at about the mileage stipulated and the bus must be maintained in accordance with the instructions given in this manual.
To ensure that your bus gets perfect maintenance also in the future, you should reach some kind of agreement with your Volvo workshop about continued service.TOC
If the bus is to retain its original properties throughout its entire lifetime, regular maintenance is required, in other words - SYSTEM-SERVICE.
You are urged to get in touch with your local Volvo workshop and with their help draw up a servicing program in accordance with the Volvo SYSTEM-SERVICE for buses. The Volvo workshop is the most suitable workshop to look after your bus because it has:
The Volvo SYSTEM-SERVICE for buses consists of 4 different service programs: B1 at 5,000 km, B2 at 10,000 km, B3 at 40,000 km and B4 at 80,000 km.TOC
|Measures||To be carried out
after every (km)
|Oils, oil checks, oil changes, oil filters|
|1||Engine oil, check||Daily||52|
|2||Engine oil, change1||10,000||53|
|3||Engine oil filter, change1||10,000||53|
|4||Manual transmission, check oil||5,000||54|
|5||Manual transmission, change oil7||40,0003||55|
|6||Gear lever carrier, check oil||5,000||55|
|7||Gear lever carrier, change oil5||80,000||55|
|8||Voith 851 automatic transmission, check oil||5,000||56|
|9||Voith 851 automatic transmission, change oil and clean filter3||30,000||57|
|10||ZF automatic transmission, check oil||5,000||58|
|11||ZF automatic transmission, change oil and filter2||30,000||59|
|12||Allison automatic transmission, check oil||5,000||60|
|13||Allison automatic transmission, change oil and clean filter4||40,000||61|
|14||Final drive check oil||5,000||62|
|15||Final drive, change oil4||40,000||62|
|16||Power-assisted steering, check oil||5,000||63|
|17||Power-assisted steering, change filter6||80,000||63|
|18||Angled gear, steering gear, check oil||5,000||63|
|19||Clutch fluid reservoir, check level||5,000||64|
|20||Chassis, all-round lubrication||5,000||64|
|Further measures which can be carried out by driver or owner|
|21||Coolant, check level||Daily||64|
|22||Coolant, change||Every autumn||65|
|23||Coolant filter, change||20,000||67|
|24||Battery, check acid level||5,000||71|
|25||Brake system, check pressure regulator and warning lamps||Daily||74|
|26||Brake system, check for leakage||10,000||74|
|27||Brake system, check filter in air dryer||Once a year||74|
|28||Tyre pressure, check||Each week||76|
|1)||The oil in the engine should be changed at least twice a year. With a new or newly overhauled engine,
the first oil change should take place with the 2,500km warranty service, the second after 5,000km and the
third in connection with the 10,000km warranty service.
With a new or newly overhauled engine, change the oil filter at the 2,500km and 10,000km warranty services.
|2)||However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also in connection with the 2,500km warranty service.|
|3)||However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also in connection with the 2,500km and 10,000km warranty services.|
|4)||However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also in connection with the 10,000km warranty service.|
|5)||However, carried out at least once a year.|
|6)||However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also in connection with the 10,000km warranty service, on which occasion the oil is also changed.|
|7)||However, carried out at least once a year. During the running-in also after 10,000km.|
During the running-in period, the moving parts of the bus must be trimmed in order to get smooth and strong sliding surfaces. For this reason oil changing should be carried out more frequently during the running-in period than is normal later on.
|First oil change:||2,500 Km|
|Second oil change:||5,000 km|
|Third oil change:||10,000 km|
Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.
|First change:||2,500 Km|
|Second change:||5,000 km|
Thereafter every 10,000 km.
First oil change after 10,000 km. Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.
First oil change and changing of filter in connection with the 2,500 km warranty service. For Voith also during running-in at 10,000 km.
Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.
First oil change and replacement of filter after 10,000 km. Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.TOC
First oil change after 10,000 km, at which the final drive is flushed clean. Second oil change after 40,000 km. Thereafter every 40,000 km (or at least once a year).
First oil and filter change after 10,000 km. Thereafter according to the maintenance scheme.
With the all-round lubrication at 5,000 km, the oil in the engine, transmission, final drive and power-assisted steering and also check the fluid levels in the batteries, cooling system and washer reservoirs should also be checkedTOC
|1.||Coolant. Before starting the engine check the level of the coolant is between the maximum and minimum marks on the expansion tank. If necessary top-up using the same mixture in the cooling system. (Use Volvo's glycol). Never fill with cold coolant when the engine is hot! This could crack the engine block, etc., because of the large difference in temperature.|
|2.||Engine oil. Check after starting the engine that the oil level is between the
maximum and minimum marks on the oil tank level guage.
Under no circumstances may the oil level be below the minimum level.
When topping-up use the same quality oil already in the engine.
|3.||Check warning lights and confirm operation of the dashboard lights using the "Check" button.|
|4.||Brake system pressure regulator and warning lamp|
|A.||Start the engine. The indicator light should turn on and go out again when pressure has reached 460-520 kPa (4.6-5.2 bars).|
|B.||Check with the air pressure gauge that the pressure regulator disengages when pressure reaches 730-800kPa (7.3-8.0 bars).|
|C.||Depress and release the brake pedal and check that the compressor re-engages when pressure has dropped to 630-700 kPA (6.3-7.0 bars).|
|5.||Horn, direction indicators, windscreen wipers and washers, rearview
mirrors, brake lights and all the other lighting.
Check that there are no fuel leaks.
To avoid any unnecessary trouble which may arise during the wintertime, you should have your bus checked in good time.
At low temperatures, it is important that you use oils with the correct viscosity in the engine, transmission and final drive, see the recommendations on Pages 52 to 63 or in the Lubrication Chart at the end of this book.
If freezing weather is anticipated, make sure that the cooling system is protected by using at least 40% glycol in the coolant. Keep the winter mixture for the entire year and top up when necessary with water + glycol, in order to maintain good protection against rusting. Use Volvo's glycol.
Use the winter fuels supplied by the oil companies. Always try to keep the tank as well-filled as possible. Do not put methylated spirits in the fuel tank. You should try to fill the tank immediately after completing driving for the day.
During the wintertime the batteries are exposed to considerably more stresses than during the summertime, since lighting, etc, is used more often. Also the capacity of the batteries drop as the temperature drops. Check the batteries regularly - poorly charged batteries can be damaged by frost.TOC
Always make sure that the engine gets oil of a well-known make. It must be able to meet the following quality requirements:
|Below -10°C2||-10°C to +20°C||Above +20°C|
|For Service CD|
|SAE 15 W/40|
|SAE 10 W|
or SAE 10 W/20
or SAE 10 W/30
|SAE 20 W/20||SAE 30|
|or SAE 20 W 30|
|1)||The temperatures refer to stable ambient temperatures.|
|2)||Or when cold-start difficulties can be expected.|
Note : At temperatures below -20°C, SAE 10 W or SAE 10 W/20 should be used instead of SAE 15 W-40.
Note : SAE 15 W-40 to be used only to -20°C.
Check the engine oil level daily in connection with starting the engine.
Monitoring can be done with the level indicator on the tank.
This check is preferably done when the engine is idling or immediately after engine shutdown.
The level should be between the maximum and minimum marks on the oil tank level guage.
Under no circumstances may the oil level be below the minimum level.
When topping-up use the same quality oil already in the engine.
The warning lamp for low oil level keeps a continuous check during driving.TOC
The engine oil should be changed every 10,000 km, or at least every 6 months.
Also during the running-in:
|1st time at||2,500 Km|
|2nd time after||5,000 km|
|3rd time at the warranty service after||10,000 km)|
The three plugs on the engine must first be removed in order to drain the oil. One is at the lower edge of the dry sump, the other at the oil pocket on the inspection panel and the third underneath the oil tank.
Oil capacity incl. oil filter: 30 litres.
The engine has two lubricating oil filters. These can be replaced every 10,000 km when changing the oil. (During the running-in, the filters must also be changed at the 2,500 km and 10,000 km warranty services.)
The filters must not be cleaned. The only servicing requirement which can occur is replacement at specified intervals.TOC
Oil according to API-GL-4 must always be used for lubricating the gearbox.
Select the viscosity according to the following table:
|-10°C to +30°C
(14°F to +86°F)
|SAE 80 W/903||SAE 902
SAE 80 W/902
SAE 85 W/140
|1)||The temperatures refer to stable ambient temperatures.|
|2)||With very hard driving or lengthy driving at high altitudes (2,000 metres above sea level). SAE 140 or SAE 85 W/140 is recommended instead of SAE 90 or SAE 80 W/90.|
|3)||SAE 75 W is recommended at very low temperatures.|
Check the oil level every 5,000 km. To check unscrew the level plug and wipe the dipstick with a clean piece of cloth. Insert dipstick as shown in figure. If it remains dry, the oil must be topped up to the angle dipstick. (No guage on new model).TOC
|2||Filler/level plug basic gearbox|
|3||Filler/level plug splitter gearbox|
Change the oil every 40,000 km or at least once a year. During the running-in, however, change the oil after the first 10,000 km.
Drain the oil immediately after running since it flows easily then.
Fill with new oil until it has reached correct level, first 2 litres in the splitter gearbox and the remainder in the main gearbox. Then start the engine and run it for about 1 minute. Check the oil level and top-up to the correct level.
|Oil change quantity:||ZF S6-80 13 litres|
|ZF S6-80/GV80 15 litres|
Check the oil level connection with the all-round lubrication, that is, every 5,000 km (3,000 miles). If necessary add new oil until it runs out through the level hole. Change the oil every 80,000 km or once a year. Use gear oil SAE 90.
Oil capacity: Approx. 0.5 litres.TOC
The proper fuctioning of the automatic transmission depends on the cleanliness of the oil used as well as the type and level of the oil. Failures are often caused by oil pollution. Before checking or filling, always clean around the guage and oil filler neck.
Oil type : ATF, type Dexron II
Check the oil level every 5,000 km through the guage at the rear of the gearbox on the right-hand side. Drive the bus until the transmission has reached normal operating temperature, that is at least 60°C. Apply the parking brake and let the engine idle. Move the selector to the N-position.
Wipe the dipstick dry and then measure the oil level in the usual way with the engine running. The level should be between the two marks on the oil dipstick.
If necessary top-up through the oil filler hole placed on the transmission right-hand side.
If the oil level falls below the lower mark on the dipstick, no assurance can be givem as to the proper functioning of the gearbox.
|Oil capacity :||approx. 25 litres on new filling|
|approx. 23 litres when draining oil from the crankcase and the converter|
Change the oil and clean the filter every 30,000 km. During the running-in period also at 2,5000 km and 10,000 km.
The oil in the transmission is drained by removing the plug underneath the sump.
The suction strainer in the oil sump should be cleaned every 60,000 km or once per year.
Before removing the oil filter, you must remove the drain plug and drain the oil.
Clean the oil filter insert and inside the filter housing in cleaning fluid. Fill the filter housing with oil and re-install the oil filter.TOC
The function of the transmission is dependent on having clean oil of the correct type at the correct level. Very often a malfunctioning transmission is because of dirt in the oil. Always clean, therefore, the dipstick and the oil filler stud when checking or topping-up.
|Oil type:||Engine oil SAE 10 W.|
|Oil quality:||API Service CC, CD, SC, SD or SE (MIL-L-2104 C).|
Check the oil level every 5,000 km with the dipstick. This is placed in the oil filler tube.
The dipstick has different marks for a warm and a cold transmission.
With a cold transmission, the oil level check can only be provisional. The transmission should have reached its normal operating temperature in order to get an accurate level. If the bus has not been driven for a long time, i.e. more than 12 hours, the oil level, before warming-up, is higher than normal. This is because oil from the torque converter and oil cooler has flooded into the gearbox and increased level.
Run the bus until the transmission has reached its normal operating temperature, that is, approx. 85° C. Stop the bus, apply the parking brake and allow the engine to idle, selector lever in N.
Wipe the dipstick dry and measure the level in the usual way with the engine running. It should be between the two upper marks on the dipstick. If it is below the lower mark for a warm transmission, top-up. This is done through the oil filler tube.TOC
Change the oil and filter every 30,000 km. During the running-in, however, after the 2,500 km.
Drain the oil by removing the drain plug on the sump and immediately after driving since it can still flow easily.
The filter is placed under the cover on the front of the oil sump on the right-hand side. Change both the filter and the O-ring in the cover. The tightening torque for the cover screws is: 22.5 Nm (2.3 m. kg).
When filling, fill slowly with approx. 12 litres. If it is not possible to fill with all the oil at once, start and run the engine at idle and top-up. Then check the oil level in the usual way.
Oil change quantity: approx. 15 litres (approx. 30 litres for filling a dry gearbox including oil cooler).TOC
The function of the transmission is dependent on having clean oil of the correct type at the correct level. Very often a malfunctioning transmission is because of dirt in the oil. Always clean, therefore, the oil filler tube before removing the dipstick to check the oil level. Make sure no dirt gets onto the dipstick.
Oil type: ATF-oil, type Dexron II.
The oil level should be checked at each all-round lubrication, that is, every 5,000 km (or more frequently if operating conditions motivate this).
The level is checked with the dipstick in the filler cover.
Check as follows:
|1||Drive the bus until the transmission has reached its normal operating temperature.
The oil must be warm to make a proper check of the level.
|2||Stop the bus on flat ground, apply the parking brake and allow the engine to idle.|
|3||Slowly move the selector lever through all the gear-changing positions. Stop for a second or two at each position.|
|4||Move the selector lever to N (engine idling).|
|5||Wipe the dipstick with a clean rag which does not leave fluff, etc., on the dipstick
and check the level in the usual way.
The level should be between the marks on the dipstick. If it is below the lower mark, top-up with ATE-oil type Dexron II.
If the level is above the upper mark, drain some of the oil to get below this level.
Change the oil and oil filter every 40,000 km or at least once a year.
During the running-in, however, change the oil and oil filter at the 10,000 km warranty service.
(For a newly overhauled transmission, the oil and oil filter must be changed for the first time after 1,000 km.)
Oil change quantity:
approx. 13 litres. for MT 643/644
approx. 14 litres for MT 654 CR
|Below -10°C||Between -10°C and +30°C||Above +30°C|
|SAE 80 W/90
SAE 80 W/140
SAE 80 W/90*
SAE 85 W/140
*) With very arduous driving or lengthy driving at altitudes of more than 2,000 metres above sea level, SAE 140 or SAE 85 W/140 is recommended instead of SAE 90 or SAE 80 W/90.
The oil level should be checked at each all-round lubrication, that is, every 5,000 km. To check. unscrew the combined level/filler plug. The oil should be level with the hole.
If topping-up is required, use the same type of oil already in the final drive.
NOTE! Also check the rear axle ventilation. It is important that it is not blocked otherwise this will cause overpressure in the rear axle and result in oil leakage.
Change the final drive oil every 40,000 km.
Change it, however, at least once a year even if you drive less than 40,000 km in that year.
During the running-in you' must also change as follows:
|1st time =||at 10,000 km warranty service, when the final drive is flushed through with the same type of oil to be subsequently used in the final drive.|
|2nd time =||40,000 km.|
Drain the oil immediately after driving since it flows easily then.
Drain by removing the bottom plug in the rear axle casing.
|EV 80B, approx. 9.5 litres|
|EV 85 B, approx. 12 litres|
(concerning the designation "EV 80 B and EV 85B", refer to the Data Plates section).TOC
Use ATF-oil type Dexron II for the power-assisted steering system.
The oil reservoir is situated at the very front on the right side of the bus. Check the oil level with the dipstick which is fixed in the reservoir cover.
Check the oil level every 5.000 km. The engine must be switched off. The level should be at the MAX. mark. If it is lower than this, top-up with the engine switched off to eliminate risk of air being sucked into the engine.
Oil and filter must be changed at the 10,000 km warranty service. The oil should then only be changed in connection with work on the power-assisted steering system.
The filter must be replaced every 80,000 km or at least once a year.
Clean the outside of the holder. Remove the old filter insert. Hold a finger under the centre hole to prevent any dirt, etc., from the inside of the filter from getting into the holder. Oil the filter sealing ring and re-fit the new insert.
The angle gear is situated at the bottom of the steering column. Check the oil level at each all-round lubrication, that is, every 5,000 km. It should be level with the plug.
Oil: ATF-oil type Dexron II.TOC
Check the level every 5,000 km. The level should be half way up the reservoir.
Use brake fluid which meets the requirements according to the standard SAE J 1703 (DOT 3 or 4).
The lubrication points in the chassis can be seen from the lubricating chart at the end of this manual.
The coolant level should be checked daily. The level of the coolant must be between the maximum and minimum marks on the expansion tank.
If necessary, top-up using the same mixture in the cooling system.
Never fill with cold coolant when the engine is hot as the large difference in temperature could crack the engine block, etc.
While driving the level can be checked by a warning lamp in the dashboard.TOC
The bus is delivered from the factory with the cooling system filled with coolant and anti-freeze (glycol) which provides protection against frost down to -35°C. This mixture can be used for the first year. The coolant should then be changed every autumn. Never use a weaker glycol mixture than 40% glycol.
The glycol protects the cooling system in the winter against freezing and in the summer from rusting.
The following table shows the glycol requirement for protection against frost at different temperatures.
Use Volvo's glycol.
|Protects against frost down to||-25°C||-30°C||-40°C||-56°C*|
*) -56°C is the maximum amount of freezing protection which can be provided. To increase the percentage of glycol above this will only impair the freezing protection.
WARNING! Glycol is poisonous.
During the warm part of the year, a rustproofing additive can be added to the coolant on certain markets where the anti-freeze is not necessary. Use Volvo's rustproofing additive for diesel engines. This is contained in containers of 118 grammes which is enough for about 10 litres of coolant.
Mix the additive in several litres of water and fill the cooling system with the mixture. Run the engine warm as soon as possible after filling the system so that the rustproofing will have maximum possible effect.TOC
Hose between engine and water pump (plug)
All drain points must be opened in order to empty the cooling system entirely. Moreover the expansion tank cap should be removed. There are five drain points for draining the cooling system. One is situated on the compressor, one on the radiator, one on the hose connection between the water pump and engine block and two underneath the engine block. Also drain the heating system.TOC
The filling is done with the engine at reat. The drain valve is located on the inlet water to the gearbox (Voith 851 automatic transmission). Verify the coolant level after after warming the engine and top-up if necessary.
The coolant filter must be replaced in connection with a change of coolant. Over and above this it is recommended that the filter be changed every 20,000 km.
With separate filter replacement, that is, when the coolant is not changed at the same time, close the cock on the filter container before unscrewing and removing the filter.
Smear the rubber seal on the new filter cartridge with a light layer of oil.
Screw on the filter until the seal makes contact with the contact surface and then tighten up the cartridge 1/2 turn by hand. Open the cocks again.TOC
REMEMBER that you must always observe the greatest cleanliness when working with the diesel engine's fuel system. Always use those diesel brands supplied by well-known oil companies. Never use brands of a poor quality.
The special winter fuels supplied by the large oil companies should be used during the wintertime. Because of the lower temperatures that prevail then, the winter fuels are not so sluggish and this reduces the risk of wax deposits in the fuel system. Please observe that we do not recommend that you mix methylated spirit with the diesel oil. Small amounts as little as 1/2% can damage the fuel system. Make sure instead that you have tank well filled and so avoid condensation in the tank.
When filling the tank at a petrol station always make sure that the tank cap and round the filler hole are clean. If you fill from your own tank or container, you would be advised to make sure that it is clean and that you filter the fuel.
Concerning fuel specifications, see Page 82.
The anti-tamper seals on the injection pump may only be broken by authorized mechanics. With unauthorized breakage of the seals, the warranty becomes null and void. The injection pump must be anti-tamper sealed in accordance with current regulations.TOC
Fuel filter bleed valve
Bleed screw, injection pump
Sooner or later during the lifetime of the bus the fuel system will have to be bled, since this is done when:
Bleeding is as follows:
|1||Open the bleed valve on the fuel filters.|
|2||Screw up the hand primer and pump fuel into the fuel system with it. When fuel free from air bubbles starts flowing out, close the bleed screw for the fuel filters whilst the fuel is flowing out.|
|3||Open the bleed screw on the injection pump. It is provided with a plastic hose to prevent the fuel
flowing out from getting into the engine and causing an unpleasant odour in the bus. Continue priming until
fuel free from air bubbles flows out. Then close the bleed screw whilst the fuel is still flowing out.
Continue priming with a further 10-20 strokes with the bleed screw closed.
Turn down the handle on the feed pump.
|Check for fuel leakage after bleeding the fuel system.|
The bus electrical system is run on 24 volts. Current is supplied by two 12 V batteries and an alternator. The system is a single-pole system and the chassis and the engine block are used as earth conductors.
Note! The following must be observed when doing any work on the electrical system:
|1||Make sure that the batteries are connected with the correct polarity
A positive cable to a negative pole or a negative cable to a positive pole would ruin the alternator rectifier very rapidly.
|2||The charging circuit must not be broken while the engine is running
The charging circuit goes from B+ on the alternator to the battery positive pole, and from its negative pole to one or earth points on the body. If the circuit or the earth cables are broken or disconnected while the alternator is charging, this will damage the alternator rectifier.
|3||Rapid charging and starting aid
Remember the polarity - positive to positive and negative to negative! Positive to negative would damage the rectifiers very rapidly.
We recommend that one of the battery cables is disconnected before rapid charging. When using, on the other hand, jumper cables as an aid in starting, all cables must be connected up.
Never use a rapid-action charger as an aid in starting. This would damage the alternator rectifier.
|4||The following must be observed prior to doing any electrical work on the vehicle:
Also make certain that the ends of the cables are disconnected and not in contact with the chassis.
Always connect the welding machine as near as possible to the areas to be welded.
After connecting cables, and after washing the vehicle in an automatic position, apply a little anti-corrosion treatment on the eclectrical connections.TOC
Check the electrolyte level each week.
The battery box is situated on the left-hand side of the bus. The electrolyte level should be approx. 10 mm above the cell plates. If the level is too low, top-up with distilled water. Never add too much, since the acid can spill over and cause damage to the paintwork, etc. Check the attachment for the cables when checking the elctrolyte level.
NOTE! Never hold the bulb glass in your hand when changing a bulb. Any grease, oil, etc., on the glass can cause the glass to emit fumes when warm and this can damage the reflector. This applies particularly to the headlight bulbs.TOC
The fuses and relays are situated in the electrical distribution centre. When the bus is delivered, this centre is placed on the frame and connected to the instrument panel by means of a cable harness.
Its final position will depend on the coach body work, etc.
The fuses are of the automatic type. In other words, they cutout automatically when overloaded. After fault tracing and any repairs, re-set the fuse by pushing in the button. Should the same fuse "blow" repeatedly, obviously something is wrong with the electrical system which should be checked by the proper workshop.
|1||Latching relay main circuit breaker|
|3||Bosch split-duty main switch|
|4||Starter heater relay|
|a)||Fuse for Tachograph and ignition switch (5A)|
|b)||Fuse for relays 4, 5 and 6 (16A)|
|6||Cold start relay|
|7||Starter motor relay|
|8||Engine compartment fan relay (if fitted)|
|9||Alternator protection diode|
|10||Coach builder's fuse|
|11||Starting heater fuse|
As an emergency measure you can manually turn off the main circuit breaker. Simply remove the rubber cap on the upper surface of the connection box in order to reposition the electromagnet switch (see decal on breakout box).
Fuses 5, 9, 10, 11 and relays 4, 6, 7, 8 (see previous illustration) occupy the same positions in the main electrical circuit breaker connection box.TOC
Check the function of the pressure regulator and the brake failure warning light when starting the engine. Any faults should be adjusted as soon as possible by an authorized Volvo workshop.
If the pressure drop during the test described below should exceed 50 kPa (0.5 bars), this points to abnormal leakage and should be put right by an authorized Volvo workshop.
The brake system is provided with an air dryer. This separates moisture from the compressed air and thus prevents valves in the brake system from freezing up.
The moisture is separated in a ceramic filter which must be changed once a year. The separated water drains automatically.
The brake system compressed-air reservoirs (2 double reservoirs) are provided with manual bleed cocks. Look for condensation water in the compressed-air reservoirs to check to see whether the air dryer is functioning or not.
The ceramic filter is adversely affected by alcohol mixtures in compressed air. When charging the buses compressed air system from an external source (can involve the use of alcohol mixtures) the external source must be connected after the air dryer.
Before each operation, only the green light marked "Drift" is illuminated.
The thermocable should be checked once a month. The cable must be intact, clean and well fixed in place. Because of age, it is recommended to replace it entirely once every two years. Verify the "Halon" bottle is fixed in place, connections have not detached due to vibration, and the guage on the bottle is in the green zone of the scale. (relates to vehicles with fire extinguishing systems).TOC
Check the tyre pressure every week.
NOTE! the air pressures in the diagrams refer to cold tyres. After you have driven several miles the temperature in the tyres will rise and also the air pressure which rises to 80-190 kPa (0.8-1.9 bar) higher than is the case with cold tyres.
With warm tyres, you should alter the air pressure only if the tyres have to be inflated.
The curves are general. The recommendations of the tyre manufacturers should primarily be followed. According to these recommendations, it may be necessary to increase the air pressure by 50-100 kPa (0.5-1.0 bar) for certain types of driving.
|SINGLE WHEELS||TWIN WHEELS|
|Axle weight, kg||Axle weight, kg|
|Inflation pressure||Inflation pressure|
Maintain the proper tyre pressure.
Remember that tyre wear increases with speed. Do not drive with imbalanced wheels.
Check the wheel toe-in regularly.
Do not change round the wheels unnecessarily.
With twin-mounted wheels, only tyres of the same type and diameter (max. 6mm difference) should be fitted together.
When about to change a wheel, first slacken the wheel nuts a few turns and then jack up the bus so that the wheel is off the ground. Then remove the wheel nuts completely and lift off the wheel.
Before installing a wheel, clean and lubricate the threads on the wheel studs. Clean the contact surfaces on the wheel and brake drum. When fitting a wheel, tighten up the wheel nuts diametrically and a little at a time until all are well-tightened. Spoke wheels should be tightened up in sequence.
|Tightening torque:||550-700 Nm (55-70 m.kg).|
Check-tighten the wheel nuts after the vehicle has been driven a short distance.