Volvo B10M Operator’s Manual

Operating Instructions

About this document

This document has been assembled for use with our Volgren TwinDeck coach which is based on a Volvo B10M Mark I chassis. The operator's manual has been divided into four sections and this one the operating instructions. The Table of Contents, maintenance and specifications sections are contained in the other linked files. This information maybe of interest to other B10M Mk I motorhome owners.

This is not a reproduction of the original English language Volvo B10M Mk I Operator's Manual. It is instead a synthesis of the following Volvo publications:

  1. B10M Mark I Operator's Manual, French edition.
  2. B10M Mark II Operator's Manual, TP 9029/1 English 4500. 11.85.
  3. Volvo B58 Operator's Manual, TP 2003/1 English 2500. 2.80
  4. Volvo Service Bulletin 3-37-18, Wiring diagram for B10M from Chassis No. 503, May 1980

It does not include any official Volgren coachwork information.


Back to the Volvo B10M Operator's Manual index page


Contents

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Page
Introduction 3
Instruments and controls4
Running-in23
Procedure before starting23
Starting the engine24
Exhaust braking26
Stopping the engine26
Changing gear26
Towing38
Inflating tyres40
Power-assisted steering40
Some advice on driving41

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3 Operating Instructions

Operating Instructions

Picture This chapter contains advice and rules for driving the Volvo B10M. Instruments and controls are described as they are when the chassis leaves the Volvo Factory.

It can happen that a coach body builder may alter the appearance of the dashboard and the location of the instruments and controls.

Generally, however, the functions of the various components are as described in this chapter.

Before starting to drive your bus, get to know where all the instruments and controls are located.

Always make a habit of checking instruments immediately after starting and regularly when driving.

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4 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Layout of Instrument Panel and Controls
  1. Hand control for parking brake
  2. Blocking valve
  3. Warning and indicator lights (see below)
  4. Stop button, engine
  5. Cold-start button/preheating button
  6. Stalk for direction indicators, high-low beam switching and headlight flashing
  7. "Check" button for warning/indicator lights and buzzer
  8. Fuel gauge
  9. Air pressure gauge
  10. Temperature gauge, coolant, engine
  11. Tachometer
  12. Horn
  13. Central warning light
  14. Ignition starter switch
  15. Radiator blind lever
  16. Instrument lighting switch
  17. Stalk for windscreen wipers and washers
  18. Tachograph
  19. Level control switch
  20. Gear shift control (Allison transmission, see Page 6 for alternative controls)
  21. Retarder switch
  22. Hand retarder control
  23. Hand throttle control
  24. Exhaust brake switch
  25. Clutch pedal (manual transmission)
  26. Brake pedal
  27. Accelerator pedal

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5 Instruments and controls

DASHBOARD AND CONTROLS
 See page
1.Hand control for parking brake8
2.Blocking valve9
3.Warning and indicator lights 
 A.Indicator light, retarder, green20
 B.Indicator light, electric heated rearview mirrors, green14
 C.Indicator light, direction indicators, green13
 D.Indicator light, full beams, blue13
 E.Warning light, "STOP" yellow14
 F.Warning light, air temperature, engine compartment, red14
 G.Warning light, doors open, red15
 H.Warning light, luggage doors open, red15
 I.Warning light, air pressure, red8
 J.Warning light, coolant temperature, engine, yellow11
 K.Warning light, oil level, engine, yellow10
 L.Warning light, charging alternator, yellow12
 M.Warning light, oil pressure, engine, yellow10
 N.Warning light, coolant level, engine, yellow11
 O.Warning light, parking brake, yellow8
 P.Indicator light, preheating intake air, engine, yellow12
 Q.Warning light, reversing lights, yellow15
 R. Indicator light (not used for B10M) -
 S.Warning light, door brake, red15
 T.Warning light, oil temp. in gearbox, yellow16
4.Stop button, engine7
5.Cold-start button/preheating button12
6.Stalk for direction indicators, full beams, dipped beams switching and headlight flashing13
7."Check" button for warning/indicator lights and buzzer10
8.Fuel gauge17
9.Air pressure gauge8
10.Temperature gauge, coolant, engine11
11.Tachometer16
12.Horn-
13.Central warning light7
14.Starter switch7
15.Radiator blind lever11
16.Instrument lighting switch17
17.Stalk for windscreen wipers and washers13
18.Tachograph18, 19
19.Level control switch21
20.Gear shift controls (picture, Allison transmission),
see Page 6 for alternative controls
6
21.Retarder switch20
22.Hand retarder control20
23.Hand throttle control17
24.Exhaust brake switch9
25.Clutch pedal (only in combination with manual gearbox) 
26.Brake pedal 
27.Accelerator pedal 

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6 Instruments and controls

Gear shift controls (20)

There are a number of different types of gear-shift controls depending on the transmission used.

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF S6-80 Gearbox shift pattern or gear lever layoutZF S6-80

For gear-shifting, see page 26.

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF S6-80/GV80 Splitter control switch layoutZF S6-80/GV80 (Splitter)

For gear-shifting, see page 27.

Volvo B10M Mk I Voith 851 Automatic Transmission Gearbox shift pattern or control switch layoutVoith 851

For gear-shifting, see page 28.

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF 4 HP 500 / 5 HP 500 Automatic Transmission Gearbox shift pattern or control switch layoutZF 4 HP 500/5 HP 500

For gear-shifting, see page 31.

Volvo B10M Mk I Allison MT 643 / 644 / 654 CR Automatic Transmission Gearbox shift pattern or control switch layoutAllison MT 643/644/654 CR

For gear-shifting, see page 34.

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7 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Ignition / Starter / Control switch layoutStarter switch (14)

RRadio
OOff (key inserted in this position)
1Drive
2Start. The key must first be pressed in before it can be turned to START.

Volvo B10M Mk I I Engine / Motor Stop switchStop control button (4)

To stop the engine, press the stop button. This stops the injection pump, the fuel injection ceases and the engine stops.

NOTE! The starter key must be at DRIVE in order for the stop control to function. Moreover, there must also be sufficient pressure in the compressed-air system.

See further Page 26.

Do not switch off the main switch until the engine has stopped.

Volvo B10M Mk I Central Warning Light / Lamp / IndicatorCentral warning light (13)

The central warning lights as an extra indicator that one of the warning lights F-T is on. A buzzer also sounds if the warning lights H, I or J come on.

Never drive the bus if the central light is on.

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8 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Forward / Rear Brake Circuit Air Pressure GuageAir pressure gauge (9)

The air pressure gauge indicates the pressure in the compressed-air reservoir for the front-wheel and drive-wheel circuits. It has two pointers: the white one indicates the pressure for the front-wheel circuit, and the red for the drive-wheel circuit.

The green sector on the gauge notes the working pressure for the compressed-air system.

Volvo B10M Mk I Brake System Warning Light Brake system warning lights (I)

The warning light is connected to both brake circuits. It goes on when the air pressure in any of the brake circuits goes below 460-520 kPA (4.6-5.2 bars).

Never start driving as long as this warning light is on.

Should the warning light come on during driving, stop the bus immediately and find out the reason for the drop in pressure.

Volvo B10M Mk I Parking Brake Warning Lamp and hand controlParking brake warning light (O)
Parking brake hand control (1)

The parking brake operates on the rear wheels.

The warning light comes on when the parking brake is applied or if the air pressure in the parking brake circuit is too low for sure release of the parking brake (that is, below 510-570 kPA (5.1-5.7 bars).

When the hand control is in its forward position with the compressed air system charged and without blocking (see "Blocking Valve, Parking Brake" on Page 9) the parking brake is released.

When the control is moved rearwards, this gradually applies the parking brake which is fully applied when the control is in its rear, latched, position. To release the control from the latched position, lift up the latch sleeve.

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9 Instruments and controls

Never leave the bus without first ensuring that the parking brake is applied with the control in the latched position.

Never start driving the bus as long as the warning light is on and stop immediately should the light go on during driving.

If a fault should arise in the service brakes during driving, the parking brake can be used as an emergency brake.

Volvo B10M Mk I Parking Brake Blocking valveBlocking valve, parking brake (2)

In the event there is no air in the brake system, for example, because the bus has been parked for some time, it will not be possible to release the parking brake until the blocking valve has been pushed in. Even if the hand control for the parking brake is in its forward position, the brakes will not release until the blocking valve has been pressed in, and this can only be done first when the system pressure exceeds 340-400 kPA (3.4-4.0 bars).

Volvo B10M Mk I Exhaust brake foot switchExhaust brake switch (24)

The exhaust brake is used when necessary as an aid to the footbrake, for example, on downhills to save the brake linings. It can also be used an aid to the footbrake to reduce speed. It is most effective at high engine speed, when the Tachometer pointer is within the green sector.

Engine speed must not rise so high that the tachometer pointer enters the red sector. The exhaust brake functions as long as the switch is depressed.

Operate the exhaust brake daily to prevent parts from sticking.

See also "Exhaust braking during travelling", Page 26.

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10 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Instrument panel check buttonCheck button (7)

When the check button is pushed in, all the control/warning lights and the central warninglight should come on and the buzzer sound. This is a check to ensure that all the bulbs and buzzer are functioning. However, it is not a guarantee that all the indicator and warning functions are functioning. Failure at a sender cannot be discovered by depressing the check button.

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine oil pressure warning lightWarning light for engine oil pressure (M)

The warning light goes on when the engine oil pressure goes below 50 kPA (0.5 bar). Should it light during driving, stop the engine immediately and find out the reason for this. It should light when the starter key is at DRIVE but the engine is not running. As soon as the engine starts the light should go out. It can happen that if the engine is warm and at low idle the light goes on without there being any fault. If the engine is already warm, the oil pressure should rise to 300-500 kPA (3-5 bars).

If in doubt consult with a Volvo workshop.

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine low oil level warning lightWarning light, engine oil level (K)

This warning light goes on if the oil level in the engine oil tank goes down too far. Stop and check the oil level in the oil tank, see Page 52. Also check for any leakage. When topping up, make sure that the right type of oil is used, see Page 52.

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11 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant temperature guageTemperature gauge, engine coolant (10)

The temperature gauge indicates the temperature in the engine cooling system and thereby the engine's working temperature. During driving, the temperature gauge pointer should normally be within the green sector. Under very warm conditions, however, the pointer can be in the upper yellow sector. But the bus should not be driven when the needle is in the red sector.

Volvo B10M Mk I Radiator bllind leverRadiator blind lever (15)

The radiator blind is used to regulate the engine operating temperature with the engine thermostat. You must never drive with the blind down long enough to cause the engine to overheat - this could damage the engine. Do no use the radiator blind during the first 2,500 km.

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant high temperature warning lightWarning light for engine coolant temperature (J)

Should the coolant temperature light come on during driving, stop the bus immediately but let the engine idle for about one minute before stopping it. Check to see if the temperature gauge is indicating too high a temperature. Also check the Low Coolant warning light (N) for low coolant level. If also this light comes on, probably the reason for the high temperature is too low a coolant level. This can also be checked in the cooling system's expansion tank. Should the coolant temperature be too high, the vehicle's cooling system should be checked at a workshop.

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant low level warning lightWarning light for low coolant level (N)

Should this light come on during driving, stop and check the level in the cooling system expansion tank. Check the cooling system for leakage before topping-up with coolant. Concerning coolant, see Page 64.

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12 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Preheating engine intake-air indicator lightIndicator light, preheating intake-air engine (P)
Button, cold-start/preheating (5)

Volvo B10M Mk I cold-start/preheating buttonTo facilitate starting and reduce white smoke after starting, an electric starter heater can be used to heat the air in the engine's intake manifold. (This is only standard on markets with cold climate). During the time the heater is engaged the light remains on.

The cold-start/preheating button is used in cold weather when one wishes to engage the heater coil before starting. See further under "Starting the engine" on Page 24.

The injection pump is fitted with a cold-start device which makes it possible to start the engine under very difficult starting conditions. The device is engaged by operating the combined coldstart/preheating button. See further under "Starting the engine" on Page 24.

Volvo B10M Mk I Battery charging warning lightWarning light for battery charging (L)

The lamp comes on when the batteries are discharged. Should the light come on during driving, probably there is a fault in the electrical system or the alternator drive belts are slipping.

The light should come on when the starter key is at "Drive" position with the engine not running. When the engine starts, the light should go out.

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13 Instruments and controls

Stalk for direction indicators, full beams, dipped beams and headlight flasher (6)

On a righthand drive (RHD) coach all the above-mentioned functions are operated by the stalk on the righthand side, under the steering wheel. Moving the stalk upwards switches on the left-hand direction indicators, moving it downwards switches on the right-hand ones.

On a lefthand drive (LHD) coach all the above-mentioned functions are operated by the stalk on the lefthand side, under the steering wheel.

Moving the stalk upwards switches on the right-hand direction indicators, moving it downwards switches on the left-hand ones.

Pulling the stalk towards the steering wheel switches on the headlights.

The headlights are flashed even when the headlights are not switched on simply by pulling the stalk towards the steering wheel.

THE SWITCH for the headlights is installed by the coach body builder so that its type and position can vary.

Volvo B10M Mk I Indicator light for direction indicatorsIndicator light for direction indicators (C)

This light starts flashing in unison with the direction indicators.

Volvo B10M Mk I Headlights indicator lightIndicator light for headlights (D)

This light comes on when the headlights are switched on.

Stalk for windscreen wipers and washers (17)

The windscreen wipers have two speeds. Moving the stalk downwards one step operates the wipers at normal speed, which is recommended for normal driving in rain or snow. Moving the stalk down fully operates the wipers at full speed. This is recommended only when driving in heavy rain or when driving at high speed when it is raining.

The windscreen washer functions when the stalk is moved up towards the steering wheel.

On buses which are equipped with headlamp wipers and washers, these are engaged by moving the stalk towards the steering wheel. In other words, they are operated in the same way as the windscreen washer, providing that the main light switch is on.

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14 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Electrically heated rearview mirrors indicator lightElectrically heated rearview mirrors indicator light (B)

This light goes on when the electrical heating for the rearview mirrors is switched on. The switch is installed by the coach body builder so its location can vary.

Volvo B10M Mk I Passenger Stop indicator lightSTOP indicator light (E)

This light goes on when a passenger pushes in the alighting button in the bus. It goes out when the bus stops and doors have opened. The function is wired by the coach body builder.

Volvo B10M Mk I High engine compartment temperature warning lightHigh engine compartment temp. warning light (F)

This light goes on when the air temperature in the engine compartment becomes too high. Normally it is only used on buses with a soundproofed engine compartment. Should the light go on during driving, stop the bus immediately and find out the reason.

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15 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Door open warning lightDoors open warning light (G)

This light goes on if any of the doors are open. Driving with open doors is thereby avoided. This function is wired by the coach body builder.

Volvo B10M Mk I Luggage door open warning lightLuggage doors open warning light (H)

This light goes on if a luggage door is open. Driving with open luggage doors is thereby avoided. This function is wired by the coach body builder.

Volvo B10M Mk I Reversing warning lightWarning light for reversing lights (Q)

This light goes on when the reversing lights are switched on. The function is wired by the coach body builder.

Volvo B10M Mk I Door brakewarning lightDoor brake warning light (S)

To make it impossible to drive with an open door, the bus brakes are operated in certain cases when a door is open. The light goes on when the bus brakes because of the open door. This function is wired by the coach body builder.

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16 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Transmission temperature warning lightTransmission temperature warning light (T)

This light goes on when the transmission temperature becomes too high. Should it go on during driving, disengage the retarder (Retarder Off). Should it remain on in spite of this, stop the bus and allow the engine to idle with the selector lever in neutral and find out the reason.

For ZF 4 HP 500/5 HP 500 see also Page 33.

Tachometer (11)

Volvo B10M Mk I Tachometer The tachometer is calibrated in revolutions per minute. It is important both with regard to fuel economy and the lifespan of the engine that it is allowed to operate at a correct speed.

  1. The lower yellow sector is the low-speed range. Here the engine has less pulling power.
  2. The green sector is the working range. The engine speed should be kept as far as possible within this range during driving.
  3. The upper yellow sector is what is known as the output range. It is a speed range which may be occasionally used for short periods when accelerating and gear-changing.
  4. The red sector and upwards must not be used.

On buses with the fully automatic transmission, the possibility of the driver influencing the gear-changing points is limited. The tachometer, however, is a valuable check that the gear-changing takes place at the right speed.

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17 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Fuel guageFuel gauge (8)

The fuel gauge indicates approximately what fuel there is in the tank. When the pointer is at the bottom sector there is approx. 10 % left in the tank.

Volvo B10M Mk I Hand throttleHand throttle (23)

The hand throttle is used among other things to increase idling speed in order to boost the compressed-air system more rapidly at start. Also refer to "Warming a cold engine" on Page 25

Do not drive with the hand throttle out! (Increased engine speed increases the temperature and thus wear on the transmission when the bus is stationary.)

Volvo B10M Mk I Instrument panel light switchInstrument panel light switch (16)

The instrument panel lighting comes on when the parking lights, or the fullbeams or dipped beams are switched on. The switch has two positions which can be used to regulate the intensity of the instrument panel lighting.

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18 Instruments and controls

7-day tachograph (16)

Volvo B10M Mk I 7-day tachograph
1.Warning lamp
2.Change-driver lock and switch
3.Speedometer
4.Odometer
5.Clock

Two different types of tachographs are available depending on the particular market. See Page 19 for the 24-hour type tachograph.

This 7-day type is used for registration during 7 days without having to replace the charts. It registers the speed, total distance driven and time taken. A warning lamp lights when speed increases above 70 km/h. This speed limit can be adjusted using a screw inside the instrument. On the charts under the dial the speed, distance driven, driving and stoppage times are registered. The keys supplied and marked 1 and 2 are used switching to the respective chart in connection with change of drivers. The charts should suitably be changed once a week. This is done as follows:

  1. Open the tachograph by turning the key counter-clockwise. The key can be used as a handle.
    (Note! The instrument can only be opened by the special key.)
  2. Remove the holder (bayonet fitting) and the chart. Set the hands with the adjuster knob.
  3. Fill a bunch of charts with the necessary information and insert them in the instrument. Make sure they are not bent at the edges and those with narrow strips are attached to each other, since this is a provision for 7-day registration.
  4. Turn the chart so that the actual time is opposite the red mark on the stylus plate and fit the holder.
  5. Close the instrument and turn the key to the right. Remove the key.

NOTE! The tachograph must not be opened during driving. If it is opened for any other reason than replacing charts, the used (loose) charts must be removed before closing the instrument again. The tachograph must not be used without a chart inside otherwise the stylus will be damaged.

For further information on the tachograph, refer to the instructions of the manufacturer.

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19 Instruments and controls

24-hour type tachograph (16)

Volvo B10M Mk I 24-hour tachograph
1.Speedometer
2.Clock
3.Operating indicator
4.Speed warning light
5.Time switches
6.Lock with key
7.Function check warning light
8.Odometer

There are two different types of tachograph used depending on the market. For the 7-day type, see Page 18. This 24-hour type registers for the driver and second-driver. It registers the speed, total distance driven and time taken. The tachograph has an operating indicator, which tells you whether the instrument is functioning or not, as well as a warning lamp which goes on if the tachograph does not have a chart or if the stylus does not reach the chart. Another warning lamp goes on if a certain speed is exceeded. This speed limit may be set using a screw inside the instrument.

Registered on the charts are the speed, distance driven, driving and stoppage times as follows:

Volvo B10M Mk I 24-hour tachograph effective driving time symbol effective driving time
Volvo B10M Mk I 24-hour tachograph working time other than driving time symbol working time other than driving time
Volvo B10M Mk I 24-hour tachograph preparatory work, travelling time, or waiting time symbol preparatory work, travelling time, waiting time
Volvo B10M Mk I 24-hour tachograph rest time symbol rest time

The tachograph must always have two sets of charts, one for the driver and the other for the second-driver. The top chart and switch 1 is intended for the one at present driving the bus. The chart under and switch 2 is intended for the second-driver. With change of drivers, the charts must also change place in the instrument and the instrument switched to the appropriate symbol.

How to change the charts:

  1. Complete the necessary data on centre of the charts.
  2. Open the instrument with the key.
  3. Hinge up the grey lock clasp and remove the top chart.
  4. Hinge up the transparent disc and the white lock clasp.
  5. Remove the next chart.
  6. Fit the new chart for the second-driver. Make sure that the green side faces upwards and lock tight the chart.
  7. Fold down the transparent disc and snap it firmly in position with the snap clasps.
  8. Fit the chart for the driver and with the green side facing upwards and lock the chart with the grey clasp.
  9. Close the instrument.

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20 Instruments and controls

The tachograph must not be opened during driving and must not be operated without charts otherwise this will damage the stylus. Even if the vehicle does not have a second-driver, there must be two charts in the instrument otherwise the function control lamp will light.

For further information concerning the tachograph, refer to the instructions of the manufacturer.

Volvo B10M Mk I Electric retarder indicator lightRetarder indicator light (A)

This light goes on when the electric retarder operates. See also Page 37.

Retarder switch (for the electromagnetic retarder) (21)

Volvo B10M Mk I Electromagnetic retarder control switch

Retarder switch

When braking with the brake pedal, the retarder automatically functions provided control switch (21) is in the intermediate or 'ON' position. Also see Page 37.

The command switch has 3 positions :

OFFRetarder off.
IntermediateMid-effect retarder brake.
ONFoot brake lever controls all stages of the retarder. Also see Page 37.

Manual control of the retarder (electromagnetic retarder) (22)

Volvo B10M Mk I Electromagnetic retarder manual hand control

Retarder hand control

With the hand control you can operate the retarder braking without operating the brake pedal, whatever the position of the control switch.

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21 Instruments and controls

Level control switch (19)

Volvo B10M Mk I Air suspension level control switch for Ferry Used when large ground clearance is temporarily needed, e.g., driving onto a ferry. Depressing the lower part of the switch raises the bus approximately 50mm and the warning lamp is illuminated. Pushing in the upper part of the switch lowers the bus to its normal position, where it is easier to enter the bus.

Fire Alarm

Volvo B10M Mk I Fire alarm panel
1.Fire warning lamp/trigger button
2.Electrical faults lamp
3.Operation lamp
4.Warning lamp, gas pressure too low (only with automatic fire extinction)

The B10M built with a motor equiped with a special warning against fire.

This system has a red warning light that flashes when the temperature inside the engine compartment gets too high (over +135°C), a green light emitting diode for confirming the power supply, and a red light emitting diode for confirming any defects in the electrical system.

In case of fire, it must be extinguished manually using the fire extinguisher.

The bus can also be equipment with a system for a system for extinguishing fire. In this case the warning lamp (1) also serves as a button to trigger the extinguishing system.

If this warning lamp lights up, lift the protective cover and press the button.

This system is also equiped with a warning lamp (4) which is activated whenever the gas pressure in the extinguishing system becomes too weak.

Measures in case of fire

Vehicle with only a warning system

1.Immediately stop the vehicle and cut the motor.
2.Evacuate the bus.
3.Check and if necessary, use the manual fire extinguisher.
4.Stop the repeating warning sound by pressing the flashing trigger button.
5.Request the repairer restore the system in working order.

B Vehicle with on/off warning system

1.Immediately stop the vehicle and cut the motor.
2.Press the lamp button (Note: Commence by opening the safety cover).
3.Evacuate the bus.
4.Check and if necessary, use the manual fire extinguisher.
5.Request the repairer restore the system in working order.

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22 Instruments and controls

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine air cleaner filter pressure drop indicatorPRESSURE-DROP INDICATOR

The pressure-drop indicator at the air cleaner registers the flow resistance through the air cleaner filter. When the window of the pressure-drop indicator is fully red or every 18 months, the air cleaner insert must be replaced. After the replacement, re-set the pressure-drop indicator by pressing in the button in the bottom of it.

MAIN SWITCH

Volvo B10M Mk I Main manual electrical control switch

Main Switch
Position A : On
Position B : Off

The bus has a main switch, which can switch off the battery current to all functions except the tachograph, emergency/hazard lights and radio communication devices.

Note that the current must not be broken while the engine is running.

There are two types of main switches: a manual or an electrical. The manual switch is directly wired to the battery cable and is mounted near the batteries inside the battery box. With the electrical main switch the current is switched off in the actual battery cable with the help of a relay mounted in the battery box. The actual control switch is often smaller and mounted by the coach body builder. Location can vary, but is usually near the front door or the driving seat.

TO AVOID UNINTENTIONAL POWER CONSUMPTION, ALWAYS SWITCH OFF THE MAIN SWITCH WHEN PARKING OR GARAGING THE BUS FOR SOME TIME.

The circuit breaker can also be operated manually, see page 73.

Volvo B10M Mk I Emergency stop control in engine compartmentENGINE COMPARTMENT CONTROLS

In the engine compartment there is a wire control for stopping the engine. Since the function here is mechanical, this wire can function independently of the electrical and compressed-air systems.

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23 Starting and driving

RUNNING-IN

When the bus is new, it should be handled with particular care, especially during the first 5,000 km. Do not take out full output for more than short stretches during this time. Avoid high engine speeds.

Brake smoothly during the first part of the running-in period as the brake drums and brake linings will last longer.

Remember that the oil in the engine, gearbox and rear axle must be changed more often during the running-in. See Page 48.

BEFORE STARTING

Volvo B10M Mk I Engine low oil level warning light Volvo B10M Mk I Engine coolant low level warning light

Procedure before starting

Turn the starter key to DRIVE.

1.  Check that the warning light for low oil level is out. The oil level can also be checked from the oil tank, see Page 50.
2.  Check that the warning light for low coolant level is out. The coolant level can also be checked from the expansion tank, see Page 50.

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24 Starting and driving

STARTING THE ENGINE

  1. Check that the parking brake is on.
  2. Place the speed selector:
    in neutral (for manual gearbox) or N (for fully automatic transmission).

Warm Engine

  1. Turn the starter key to the starting position and hold it in this position until the engine starts.

Cold Engine

Volvo B10M Mk I cold-start/preheating button

  1. Turn the starter key to DRIVE. Push in the cold start button. This switches on the starter heater (preheating) and the indicator light goes on. A timer relay maintains preheating for about 50 seconds.
  2. When the light goes out, depress the accelerator pedal 1/3 and turn the starter key to START.
    See also "Warming a cold engine" on Page 25.
  3. With low ambient temperature (below -15°C): push in the cold-start button once more in order to engage the cold-start device on the injection pump. (It is not necessary to keep the button pushed in during the entire starting period. Push it in only for a brief moment and then release it.)
  4. When the engine has started, the cold-start automatically disengages.
  5. With abnormal exhaust smoke, the cold-start button should be pressed in once more after the engine has started in order to get further heating for another 50 seconds.

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25 Starting and driving

Notice in connection with starting and driving:

Start gas warning graphic

Start gas must not be used as an aid in starting. There is great risk that it will explode in the intake manifold and cause severe damage to engine and bodywork.

Warming a cold engine

Never race a cold engine. The lubricating oil is then cold and sluggish so that it takes time to penetrate to all the engine's lubricating points so there is a risk of serious damage to the engine if raced. Because of its design the THD100 engine has a separate oil tank with longer hoses than in a conventional engine. This means that special care must be observed.

Note that this also applies even if the bus was connected to a so-called “ramp heater” since the oil in the separate oil tank is sluggish.

Do not let engine speed exceed 11-12 r/s (600-700 r/min) until after a minute or two.

Increase the engine speed gradually, before driving the bus, until normal operating speed is attained. Check at the same time the oil pressure warning light. If the light goes on, reduce engine speed immediately to idle speed and repeat warm-up procedure.

Never load the engine unless it has reached its normal operating temperature.

Note

On buses equipped with a fully automatic Voith transmission, you may even damage the transmission if you race the engine immediately after starting.

Let the engine run for two to three minutes with gear selector in neutral. The bus should be stationary and engine at idle when you push in buttons 1, 2 or D.

Never load the engine unless it has reached its normal operating temperature.

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26 Starting and driving

Exhaust braking while driving

Volvo B10M Mk I Exhaust brake foot switch

  1. Release the accelerator pedal.
  2. Depress the foot switch.
  3. Exhaust braking stops when you release the foot switch.

NOTE!

The injection pump does not disengage automatically with exhaust braking. It is therefore important that you release the accelerator pedal before you depress the foot switch in order to avoid damage to the valve system or heavy exhaust smoke.

STOPPING THE ENGINE

The engine is stopped by pushing in the stop button on the dashboard. it can also be stopped by pulling out the mechanical stop control in the bus engine compartment. After the bus has been driven hard, the engine should be allowed to idle for a minute or two before it is stopped in order to smooth out heat stresses.

Do not forget to switch off with the starter key.

Gear-Changing

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF S6-80 Gearbox shift pattern or gear lever layout

Gear-lever positions:
ZF S6-80 gearbox

Manual Gearbox ZF S6-80

The ZF S6-80 type gearbox is a six-speed, fully synchronised gearbox. The gear lever positions are shown on the adjacent picture.

When changing to a higher gear, you should always keep the gear lever steady for a moment in neutral before engaging the higher gear.

When changing down, it is suitable to keep the foot on the accelerator, provided that you move the gear lever fairly quickly. This will give the engine an opportunity to increase to a suitable speed corresponding to the higher reduction ratio.

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27 Starting and driving

Manual Gearbox ZF S6-80/GV-80

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF S6-80/GV80 Splitter control switch layout

Overdrive control
H = Overdrive range
L = Normal range

In principle the 12-speed gearbox consists of a 6-speed basic gearbox combined with a splitter unit. This means that the basic gear positions are the same as for a 6-speed plus an overdrive "Split" doubling speed, giving 12 different gear ratios.

The transition from normal speed range to overdrive is accomplished using the clutch and the overdrive toggle switch on the gear shift.

Changing from normal (Low) to overdrive (High) splitter range:

  1. Flip up the toggle switch.
  2. Just before 2,000 r/min, depress the clutch pedal fully. Overdrive (High) split is then engaged.

Changing from overdrive (High) to normal (Low) splitter range:

  1. Flip down the toggle switch.
  2. Just before 1,300 r/min, depress the clutch pedal fully. Low split is then engaged.

The transition from normal to overdrive or vice versa, along with a shift in the principal gearbox:

  1. Flip the overdrive toggle switch up or down whichever is the case.
  2. Await a suitable speed and then change as usual with the gear lever.

Example: If we are driving in 5th Low and want to change down to 4th high, we proceed as follows:

Toggle switch up to H. Await a suitable road and engine speed, then change in the usual way from 5th to 4th. The gearbox will not change between high or low split until the clutch pedal is fully depressed. The toggle switch position, on the other hand can be selected in advance, and then wait for a suitable opportunity to change gear.

With normal start on a flat road, we recommend starting in 2nd, and then changing up to 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th low and finally 6th high.

1st low can be used for moving short distances and when starting on very steep uphills. With reversing, reverse low gives the most suitable speed.

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28 Starting and driving

Voith 851 Automatic Transmission

Volvo B10M Mk I Voith 851 automatic transmission control switch layout

Transmission control switches
A = Retarder on/off switch
B = Reverse lock

Reverse
Neutral position: Pushing in button N restores all the other buttons to their off position.
Normal position for driving forwards: Automatic changing up and down between 1st, 2nd and 3rd.
Automatic changing up and down between 1st and 2nd. No change-up to 3rd.
1st gear engaged. No change-up to higher gears.

Starting the engine

The engine can only be started with the N button pushed in. When the engine is cold, it should be allowed to idle for 1-2 minutes to avoid possible damage to the transmission.

Driving away

Push in button 1, 2 or D: only with bus stationary and engine idling. Release the parking brake. Regulate speed with the accelerator pedal and footbrake.

Driving forwards

Push in button D for driving forwards under normal traffic conditions. With frequent automatic changing up and down in heavy traffic or on uphills, it is better to select the nearest lower gear by pushing in button 2 or 1.

Each forward driving position can be preselected during driving. If button 2 or 1 is pushed in at a speed higher than that corresponding to the respective driving position, the transmission changes down first when the engine maximum speed is not exceeded.

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29 Starting and driving

Reversing

Reversing is engaged by pushing in button R and the reverse inhibitor button. Changing between forward and reverse can only be done after button N has been pushed in.

Note! Maximum reversing speed is 10 % of forward speed.

Kick-down

The accelerator pedal full throttle position is reached when this pedal shows resistance. If earlier changing-down is desired, for example when overtaking, depress the accelerator pedal to the floor past this pressure point (kick-down).

Bus stops

Push button D, 2 or 1 should remain pushed in for brief stops: the bus is held stationary with the footbrake or the parking brake. The N button should only be pressed in when the driver momentarily has to leave his seat or when the engine is switched off.

Parking

The parking brake must always be on since the transmission does not have a parking position.

Retarder (brake on gearbox)

Volvo B10M Mk I Voith 851 automatic transmission retarder switch

The retarder/transmission brake is operated by the brake pedal. The first two stages are engaged via electrical contacts which cut in current during the pedal free play, and the third stage when there is a pressure of 0.3 bar (30 kPa) in the brake system. The retarder should be disengaged when on a slippery surface since it operates only on the rear wheels. It is disengaged electrically by the "RETARDER ON/OFF" switch.

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30 Starting and driving

Electrical control of gearbox function

Volvo B10M Mk I Voith 851 automatic transmission engagement of mechanical overide
A.Spacer sleeve
B.M8

In case of failure of the electrical system for controlling the gearbox, you can manually select 1st gear as follows:

You can then start the engine. Note however that 1st gear engaged. To avoid a sudden jerk forward of the vehicle, use the brake pedal when starting.

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31 Starting and driving

ZF 4 HP 500 and ZF 5 HP 500 FULLY AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF automatic transmission control panel

A = Engage / disengage the retarder
B = Fluid temperature gauge

These are 4-stage and 5-stage automatic transmissions with torque converter/retarder.

Sector lever positions

Reverse
Neutral. Pushing in button N re-sets all the other buttons to their initial position. When changing between forward and reverse, first depress button N.
Normal position for driving forwards. Automatic changing-up and down between 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th (and 5th on 5-stage transmission).
Automatic changing-up and down between 1st, 2nd and 3rd (and 4th on 5-stage transmission).
1st gear is engaged. No change-up.

Starting the engine

The engine can only be started when button N is pushed in.

Driving away

Select the desired gear position by pushing in one of the buttons (bus stationary, engine idling). Release the parking brake and drive off smoothly under light accelerator pedal pressure.

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32 Starting and driving

Driving forwards

Position D for the selector lever is used when driving under normal traffic conditions. Position 2 is used if the bus is carrying a heavy load or the traffic is so dense that you do not wish to change-up (e.g. if there is too frequent changing-up and down because of the traffic, etc., select the nearest lower gear by depressing button 2 or 1). Position 1 is suitably used when garaging the bus or moving it a short distance. All the forward gears can be selected for driving forwards. If button 2 or 1 is depressed when the bus is travelling at a speed higher than that corresponding to the particular gear position, change-down takes place first only when the engine's maximum speed is not exceeded.

Reversing

Reverse is engaged by pushing in button R.

Changing gear from forward to reverse can only be done after button N is first depressed.

Kick-down

The full throttle position for the accelerator pedal is felt by resistance from the pedal. If changing down gear is required, for example when overtaking, depress the accelerator pedal to the floor past this pressure point (kick-down).

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33 Starting and driving

Bus stops

For brief stops, push button D, 2 or 1 must remain depressed; the bus is held stationary only with the footbrake or parking brake. The N-button is depressed only when the driver leaves his seat for a moment or when the engine has stopped.

Parking

Since there is no parking position on the gearbox, remember to always use the park brake in these circumstances.

Transmission brake/retarder

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF automatic transmission brake / retarder control switch

The transmission brake/retarder is operated by means of the brake pedal. When the brake pedal is depressed, the retarder is uniformly operated during the first stage of pedal travel. Further pressure on the brake pedal results in full-braking using the retarder and at the same time the compressed-air brakes start to operate. With a slippery road surface, the retarder should be disengaged since it operates only on the rear wheels. This is done electrically by operating the button marked "RETARDER ON/OFF", on the bus's gear selector panel.

Fluid temperature gauge for ZF 4 HP 500/5 HP 500 transmission

Volvo B10M Mk I ZF automatic transmission fluid temperature guage

Green sector - Normal transmission temperature
Red sector - Excessive fluid temperature warning lamp for transmission lights

Should the temperature become too high, speed must be reduced or the retarder disengaged. Should this not reduce the temperature, the bus must be stopped. Engage neutral, depress the accelerator pedal to the floor and keep it there for several seconds. If the temperature does not drop immediately, this may be due to the oil level being too low or there is a fault in the transmission oil cooling.

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34 Starting and driving

ALLISON MT 643/644/654 CR FULLY AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS

Volvo B10M Mk I Allison MT 643 / 644 automatic transmission control lever

MT 643/644

These transmissions are 4-step or 5-step automatic units with torque converter.

The transmission is operated by a selector lever situated on the right-hand side of the instrument panel. The control is mechanical.

Selector lever positions MT 643/644

R - reverse

NOTE! The bus must be stationary when you move the selector lever from a forward gear to R or from R to a forward gear.

N - neutral

Use this position when starting the engine and for longer stops with the engine running. The engine cannot be started with the selector lever in any other position.

Always apply the parking brake when the bus is stationary with the selector lever at N.

Never let the bus roll with the selector lever at N as this could damage the transmission.

D - normal forward driving position

The bus starts in 1st. As it increases speed there is automatic change-up into 2nd, 3rd and 4th. When the bus is braked, there is automatic change-down to the appropriate gear.

For brief stops such as bus stops, the selector lever should not be moved to neutral.

3 and 2

These positions are used if the bus is heavily loaded or the traffic so dense that you do not wish to change to a higher gear.

1 - low-gear position

Use this position only when moving the bus a short distance and when garaging it.

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35 Starting and driving

Selector lever positions MT 654 CR

Volvo B10M Mk I Allison MT 654 automatic transmission control lever

MT 654

R - reverse

NOTE! The bus must be stationary when you move the selector lever from a forward gear to R or from R to a forward gear.

N - neutral

Use this position when starting the engine and for longer stops with the engine running. The engine cannot be started with the selector lever in any other position.

Always apply the parking brake when the bus is stationary with the selector lever at N.

Never let the bus roll with the selector lever at N as this could damage the transmission.

D and 4 are the normal forward positions

The bus starts in 1st. As it increases speed there is automatic change-up into 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th. When the bus is braked, there is automatic change-down to the appropriate gear.

For brief stops such as bus stops, the selector lever should not be moved to neutral.

In 4th position there is no change-up to 5th.

3 and 2

These positions are used if the bus is heavily loaded or the traffic so dense that you do not wish to change to a higher gear. Position 2 gives the best effect of engine braking.

1 - low-gear position

Use this position only when moving the bus a short distance and when garaging it.

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36 Starting and driving

Selector lever positions MT 654 CR

Volvo B10M Mk I Allison MT 643 / 644 automatic transmission sector lever inhibitor

Selector lever inhibitor

Selector lever inhibitor

The selector lever is provided with an inhibitor to prevent un-intentionally engaging the "wrong" gear.

The inhibitor must be pressed in when gear-changing.

The inhibitor, on the other hand, does not need to be pressed in when moving the selector lever to a "higher" gear position or when moving it from D to N.

Starting the engine

The engine can only be started when the selector lever is at N.

To drive away, press in the inhibitor, move the selector lever to the desired driving position and depress the accelerator pedal.

Changing-up

The speed at which the transmission changes-up to the next higher gear will depend on how much you depress the accelerator pedal. With the accelerator pedal depressed to the floor, there is change-up at high speed, near the engine's max. speed. With the accelerator pedal lightly depressed, there is change-up at a lower speed.

If the selector lever is at any of the low-gear positions, there is no change-up to the highest gear (unless the engine is overrevved).

Stopping at bus stops

For brief stops, the selector lever should not be moved to neutral; the bus should be held stationary with the footbrake or the parking brake. Only when the driver leaves the driving seat for a moment or when the engine has stopped should the selector lever be moved to N.

Parking

Since the transmission has no parking position, the bus must always be parked by using the parking brake.

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37 Starting and driving

Controlling the electromagnetic retarder

Volvo B10M Mk I electromagnetic retarder hand control

Retarder hand control

Volvo B10M Mk I electromagnetic retarder control switch

Retarder switch

The B10M can be fitted with an option of an electromagnetic brake on the drive shaft. The retarder operates as soon as you press the brake pedal, provided the corresponding switch is in the Intermediate or ON positions. You can also actuate the retarder using the manual control, whatever the retarder switch position.

During normal braking to maximise the benefits of electromagnetic retarder braking, get gentle braking, plus avoid locking the rear wheels, you should not press the brake pedal more than necessary to operate the retarder. Indeed, in normal driving conditions, simply actuate the retarder to slow the vehicle.

The electromagnetic retarder circuit is automatically turned off 2 to 3 seconds after the vehicle stops.

The Retarder lamp (refer Lamp A on Page 5) lights when the retarder is in operation. This lamp must be extinguished when the vehicle is stopped. If it is not extinguished, then there must be a defect in the regulator which will result in very rapid discharge of batteries.

When driving on icy roads, remember that the electromagnetic retarder operates as soon as you touch the brake pedal and it only acts on the rear wheels. To avoid locking the rear wheels in such circumstances it is recommended that you temporarily or permanently switch off retarder on the dashboard.

Differential lock

The differential lock switch is located on the right side of the dashboard.

Engaging the differential lock

Pushing in the switch engages the differential lock. The following must be observed when engaging it: The differential lock may only be used on a slippery surface. Engage the lock immediately before the bus comes onto a slippery surface. This may be done while the bus is running, irrespective of the speed, and also under load, but not when entering a curve or with a skidding wheel.

NOTE: At the enterance of a bend on a firm road or surface, disengage the differential lock. This is particularly important when the vehicle is laden. Otherwise you risk breakdown of the driveshaft. Disengage the lock before the turn because you can not do so when you're turning corners.

You should never directly engage the differential lock when one wheel is spinning.

The diff. lock is engaged when the wheels are skidding in the following way:

Depress the clutch pedal, engage the diff. lock, carefully ease up on the clutch pedal by slipping the clutch. Engage a suitable gear. Engaging the diff. lock with a wheel skidding will undoubtedly damage the diff. lock claw clutch.

Note! Disengage the diff. lock immediately after passing the slippery surface so that the lock is not engaged should the bus have to make a turn. This is particularly important if the bus is loaded, otherwise there is risk of drive axle failure. The diff. lock cannot be disengaged when the bus is in a curve.

The diff. lock should not be engaged when driving with snow chains on the wheels.

We particularly warn against the method of having a chain on only one drive wheel side in order to force progress on a slippery surface.

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38 Towing

TOWING

Volvo B10M Mk I wheel valve

Connection: wheel

Volvo B10M Mk I pump valve

Connection: pump valve

Note! When towing further than 200 metres, the rear axle drive shafts or the propeller shaft must be removed.

Note that the engine cannot be started by towing if the bus is equipped with automatic transmission.

When the bus is to be moved or towed and the engine cannot be started to enable the compressor to boost up the compressed-air system, the drive wheel brake cylinders must be filled with air so that the parking brake can be released.

If there is access to compressed air, the compressed-air system can be filled via the check valve in the engine compartment. The bus air pressure gauge should register the pressure in this case. If there is no access to compressed air, the parking brake can be released in the following way:

  1. Chock the wheels to prevent the bus from rolling.
  2. Move the parking brake control to the forward position.
  3. Connect the clamp head of the tyre inflation hose supplied to the wheel valve, see picture.
  4. Connect up the other end of the hose to the tank valve which is located under the footbrake valve (accessible through the front service panel).
  5. Press in the blocking valve.
Note! Someone should be behind the steering wheel when releasing the parking brake in the event the bus should start to roll.

This fills the lines to the lower side of the drive wheel cylinders with air and the parking brake releases, providing that the pressure in the tyre exceeds approx. 5 bars (500 kPa) (fully released at 5.8-6.6 bars/580-660 kPa). The bus air pressure gauge will not give a reading but filling can be discontinued as soon as the air flow has stopped.

The bus can then be towed. Note, however, that the towing must be done with a rigid tow bar or similar since the bus footbrake does not work when only the parking brake cylinders are filled. In cases of emergency, braking can of course be carried out by moving the manual control for the parking brake to the rear position, but compressed air must be supplied again

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39 Towing

in order to release the parking brake.

When towing lengthy distances, check to make sure that the parking brake is not on because of air leakage.

Also note that the power-assisted steering does not function during towing, so extra force must be used to turn the steering wheel in order to steer the vehicle.

Volvo B10M Mk I Mechanical release of the wheel brakes

In cases of emergency, the parking brake can also be released mechanically if there is no compressed air available.

This is done as follows:

Always start by chocking the wheels to prevent the bus from rolling. This is most important since you must crawl under the bus to do the following work.

Remove the plastic cap on the rear side of the cylinder. The bolt which is now visible can be unscrewed with the appropriate spanner from the tool kit until the brake releases.

Remember to re-screw the bolt to its original position after the towing and re-fit the plastic cap.

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40 Tyre inflating, power-assisted steering

TYRE INFLATING

If necessary the tyres can be inflated with air supplied by the vehicle's compressed-air system. This is done as follows:

NOTE! It is not necessary to release the parking brake.

  1. Connect the clamp head of the tyre inflation hose supplied to the valve on the tyre to be inflated.
  2. Connect the other end of the hose to the pump valve under the footbrake valve.
  3. If necessary, start the engine so that the compressor boosts the compressed-air system. The highest pressure which the tyre can thereby be inflated is the same as the highest working pressure, that is, 7.3-8.0 bars (730-800 kPa).
  4. Check to make sure that the blocking valve is pushed in.

POWER-ASSISTED STEERING

All that is really needed for the power-assisted steering to function perfectly is that the instructions concerning the oil and lubrication are followed.

Should the front wheels, however, be blocked sideways, e.g., against a curb, there is absolutely no point in trying to get the wheels away from the curb by forcing with the steering wheel. Excessive force on the steering wheel opens the guide valves and this causes the oil pressure to rise. If the oil pressure rises to the maximum value of 5-10 MPa (50-100 bars), the oil temperature in the power-assisted steering gear will also rise with consequent risk of the oil pump overheating. An overheated oil pump can seize. If the hydraulic system should not function, nor the power-assisted steering, it will feel as if the steering gear has locked itself. This is not the case, however, you can steer the bus but more effort must be used in doing so.

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41 Operating instructions

SOME ADVICE ON DRIVING

  1. Check after starting and now again when driving that the instruments are functioning normally. Should a warning lamp light, stop the bus and find out the reason for this.
  2. Do not drive away until the air pressure gauge is in the green sector.
  3. Never ever race a cold engine. Also the gearbox and final drive require a certain amount of warming up. Avoid wheel skid, particulaly at low temperature and when driving has just started.
  4. The engine should be idling when engaging a gear and driving away.
  5. If the bus is fitted with a retarder, use it as much as possible for smooth braking. Properly used, the retarder reduces brake shoe wear.
  6. If the bus has an exhaust brake, use it with a suitable gear engaged on downhills and for lengthy braking. Operate the exhaust brake daily to prevent its parts from sticking.
  7. Disconnect the propeller shaft if the bus is to be towed.
  8. The parking brake can be used as an emergency brake in the event of service brake failure during driving. The parking brake is operated independently of the compressed-air system.
  9. Never cover the air intake to the radiator. The thermostats maintain correct temperature under all driving conditions. Check the coolant regularly and use the proper type. Fill with coolant with the engine warm and switched off.
  10. Let the engine idle for a minute or two after hard driving before switching off. This will avoid heat stresses in the engine and coolant losses.
  11. When the bus is new, it should not be handled with particular care, especially during the first 5,000 km. Except for short distances do not drive the engine at full power. Avoid high speeds.
  12. Brake carefully during the first part of the running-in period as this gives the brake drums and linimgs a longer lifetime.
  13. Remember that the oil in the engine, gearbox and final drive should be changed more often during the running in period.
  14. Do not try to start a bus equipped with automatic transmission by towing. This would damage the transmission.
  15. Change the coolant filter according to the maintenance scheme and when changing the coolant. Check the cooling system hoses regularly. Do not drive with a leaking cooling system.

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